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Cancer

Cover image for Vol. 118 Issue 18

15 September 2012

Volume 118, Issue 18

Pages 4367–4637

  1. CancerScope

    1. Top of page
    2. CancerScope
    3. Editorials
    4. Review Articles
    5. Original Articles
    6. Correspondence
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  2. Editorials

    1. Top of page
    2. CancerScope
    3. Editorials
    4. Review Articles
    5. Original Articles
    6. Correspondence
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      Lung cancer with translocation in the anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene : A disease within a disease (pages 4370–4371)

      Suresh S. Ramalingam and Fadlo R. Khuri

      Article first published online: 26 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.27402

      ALK-positive nonsmall cell lung cancer represents a unique molecular subset with distinct clinical characteristics. With the availability of effective therapy, developing sensitive diagnostic methods has become an urgent priority.

  3. Review Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. CancerScope
    3. Editorials
    4. Review Articles
    5. Original Articles
    6. Correspondence
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      Cancer burden in Africa and opportunities for prevention (pages 4372–4384)

      Ahmedin Jemal, Freddie Bray, David Forman, Meg O'Brien, Jacques Ferlay, Melissa Center and D. Maxwell Parkin

      Article first published online: 17 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.27410

      Cancer is an emerging public health problem in Africa because of the aging and growth of the population as well as increases in risk factors associated with urbanization and economic development. There are opportunities for implementing resource level interventions across all stages of the cancer control spectrum from prevention to early detection, treatment, and palliative care to reduce this burden.

  4. Original Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. CancerScope
    3. Editorials
    4. Review Articles
    5. Original Articles
    6. Correspondence
    1. Disease Site

      Breast Disease
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      Ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR) in patients with operable breast cancer who undergo breast-conserving treatment after receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy : Risk factors of IBTR and validation of the MD Anderson Prognostic Index (pages 4385–4393)

      Makoto Ishitobi, Shozo Ohsumi, Hideo Inaji, Shinji Ohno, Hideo Shigematsu, Futoshi Akiyama, Takuji Iwase, Sadako Akashi-Tanaka, Nobuaki Sato, Kaoru Takahashi and Shoji Oura

      Article first published online: 17 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.27377

      Results from this study demonstrate that estrogen receptor status and multifocality after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) are independent predictors of ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR) after breast-conserving therapy and that patients who develop IBTR after receiving NAC have significantly worse overall survival.

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      Optimizing resource allocation for breast cancer prevention and care among Hong Kong Chinese women (pages 4394–4403)

      Irene O. L. Wong, Janice W. H. Tsang, Benjamin J. Cowling and Gabriel M. Leung

      Article first published online: 22 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.27448

      Because of lower disease incidence and a difference in the age profile of Chinese patients, resources allocated to policies advocating earlier mass screening by mammography for the early diagnosis of breast cancer, instead, could be allocated more effectively and efficiently to patients with breast cancer by funding other breast cancer care-related interventions among Chinese women.

    3. Gastrointestinal Disease
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      Loss of efficacy and cost-effectiveness when screening colonoscopy is performed by nongastroenterologists (pages 4404–4411)

      Cesare Hassan, Douglas K. Rex, Angelo Zullo and Gregory S. Cooper

      Article first published online: 15 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.27664

      When screening colonoscopy is performed by nongastroenterologist specialists, a relative 11% reduction in long-term colorectal cancer prevention rates may be expected compared with gastroenterologist endoscopists.

    4. Genitourinary Disease
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      Assessment of the pathologic inclusion criteria from contemporary adjuvant clinical trials for predicting disease progression after nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma (pages 4412–4420)

      Simon P. Kim, Paul L. Crispen, R. Houston Thompson, Christopher J. Weight, Stephen A. Boorjian, Brian A. Costello, Christine M. Lohse and Bradley C. Leibovich

      Article first published online: 3 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.26695

      With a substantial proportion of patients at risk of disease progression (DP) following nephrectomy for localized renal cell carcinoma, there are 6 ongoing adjuvant trials assessing the efficacy of targeted agents: ARISER, ASSURE, EVEREST, PROTECT, SORCE, and S-TRAC. Although each trial has differing pathologic inclusion criteria, this study found relatively similar and high accuracy in predicting DP. Overall, the ongoing adjuvant trials would include patients who develop DP 43% to 59% of the time and exclude patients who develop DP 6% to 18% of the time during follow-up from this study's retrospective cohort at the Mayo Clinic (Rochester, Minnesota).

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      Disparities in access to care at high-volume institutions for uro-oncologic procedures (pages 4421–4426)

      Quoc-Dien Trinh, Maxine Sun, Jesse Sammon, Marco Bianchi, Shyam Sukumar, Khurshid R. Ghani, Wooju Jeong, Ali Dabaja, Shahrokh F. Shariat, Paul Perrotte, Piyush K. Agarwal, Craig G. Rogers, James O. Peabody, Mani Menon and Pierre I. Karakiewicz

      Article first published online: 1 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.27440

      On average, old, sick, poor, and Medicare patients are less likely to be treated at high-volume hospitals for uro-oncologic surgery. Selective referral of individuals who are less likely to receive care at such institutions may represent a health care priority intended to optimize outcomes across all population strata.

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      Identification of anaplastic lymphoma kinase fusions in renal cancer : Large-scale immunohistochemical screening by the intercalated antibody-enhanced polymer method (pages 4427–4436)

      Emiko Sugawara, Yuki Togashi, Naoto Kuroda, Seiji Sakata, Satoko Hatano, Reimi Asaka, Takeshi Yuasa, Junji Yonese, Masanobu Kitagawa, Hiroyuki Mano, Yuichi Ishikawa and Kengo Takeuchi

      Article first published online: 17 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.27391

      The presence of oncogenic anaplastic lymphoma kinase fusions was demonstrated in a small subset of non–clear cell type renal cell carcinomas. This confirmed the potential of anaplastic lymphoma kinase inhibitor therapy for renal cell carcinoma.

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      Circumcision and the risk of prostate cancer (pages 4437–4443)

      Jonathan L. Wright, Daniel W. Lin and Janet L. Stanford

      Article first published online: 12 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.26653

      Circumcision before first sexual intercourse is associated with a reduction in the relative risk of prostate cancer in this study population. The findings of this study are consistent with research supporting the infectious/inflammation pathway in prostate carcinogenesis.

    8. Head and Neck Disease
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      Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the head and neck : Incidence and survival trends based on 1973-2007 Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results data (pages 4444–4451)

      Christopher L. Ellington, Michael Goodman, Scott A. Kono, William Grist, Trad Wadsworth, Amy Y. Chen, Taofeek Owonikoko, Suresh Ramalingam, Dong M. Shin, Fadlo R. Khuri, Jonathan J. Beitler and Nabil F. Saba

      Article first published online: 31 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.27408

      The overall incidence of adenoid cystic cancer is declining. Females, patients with localized disease, and younger patients have significantly better survival across all time periods (all comparison-specific log-rank P values <.001).

      Corrected by:

      Erratum: Erratum

      Vol. 118, Issue 21, 5448–5449, Article first published online: 18 JUL 2012

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      A population-based study of therapy and survival for patients with head and neck cancer treated in the community (pages 4452–4461)

      Claudio Dansky Ullmann, Linda C. Harlan, Vickie L. Shavers and Jennifer L. Stevens

      Article first published online: 17 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.27419

      Findings in particular tumor sites and stages may reflect the variability that still exists for the treatment of head and neck cancer. The use of taxanes and cetuximab will continue to increase based on new evidence of benefit.

    10. Hematologic Malignancies
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      Predicting survival of patients with hypocellular myelodysplastic syndrome : Development of a disease-specific prognostic score system (pages 4462–4470)

      Wei-Gang Tong, Alfonso Quintás-Cardama, Tapan Kadia, Gautam Borthakur, Elias Jabbour, Farhad Ravandi, Stefan Faderl, William Wierda, Sherry Pierce, Jianqin Shan, Carlos Bueso-Ramos, Hagop Kantarjian and Guillermo Garcia-Manero

      Article first published online: 17 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.27420

      Hypocellular myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is not well characterized. The authors present an analysis of the largest cohort so far analyzed of hypocellular MDS and propose a disease-specific prognostic score.

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      Clofarabine plus low-dose cytarabine followed by clofarabine plus low-dose cytarabine alternating with decitabine in acute myeloid leukemia frontline therapy for older patients (pages 4471–4477)

      Stefan Faderl, Farhad Ravandi, Xuelin Huang, Xuemei Wang, Elias Jabbour, Guillermo Garcia-Manero, Tapan Kadia, Alessandra Ferrajoli, Marina Konopleva, Gautam Borthakur, Jan Burger, Jennie Feliu and Hagop M. Kantarjian

      Article first published online: 26 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.27429

      Clofarabine plus low-dose cytarabine induction achieves complete remission in 58% of patients, with an 8-week mortality of 7%. Alternating this combination with decitabine during consolidation produces a median overall survival of 12.7 months and is therefore a valuable option for newly diagnosed patients with acute myeloid leukemia.

    12. Lung Disease
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      Postoperative radiotherapy for elderly patients with stage III lung cancer (pages 4478–4485)

      Juan P. Wisnivesky, Ethan A. Halm, Marcelo Bonomi, Cardinale Smith, Grace Mhango and Emilia Bagiella

      Article first published online: 13 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.26585

      The potential role of postoperative radiation therapy for patients with completely resected, stage III nonsmall cell lung cancer who have N2 disease remains controversial. By using several methods to control for selection bias, the results from this study indicate that postoperative radiotherapy is not associated with improved survival in elderly patients with N2 disease.

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      Correlations between the percentage of tumor cells showing an anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene rearrangement, ALK signal copy number, and response to crizotinib therapy in ALK fluorescence in situ hybridization–positive nonsmall cell lung cancer (pages 4486–4494)

      D. Ross Camidge, Mariana Theodoro, DeLee A. Maxson, Margaret Skokan, Tara O'Brien, Xian Lu, Robert C. Doebele, Anna E. Barón and Marileila Varella-Garcia

      Article first published online: 26 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.27411

      False cellular negatives explain <100% cellular positivity rates in lung cancer positive for ALK (anaplastic lymphoma kinase) as determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Neither percentage of positive cells nor signal copy number predict for benefit from ALK inhibition in ALK FISH–positive tumors.

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      The influence of Hispanic ethnicity on nonsmall cell lung cancer histology and patient survival : An analysis of the Survival, Epidemiology, and End Results database (pages 4495–4501)

      Ali M. Saeed, Rebecca Toonkel, Marilyn K. Glassberg, Dao Nguyen, Jennifer J. Hu, Teresa A. Zimmers, David J. Robbins, Leonidas G. Koniaris and Brian E. Lally

      Article first published online: 23 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.26686

      By using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database, the authors identify an association between Hispanic ethnicity and improved survival among patients with nonsmall cell lung cancer. Hispanic ethnicity also is associated with favorable histologic subtypes.

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      Oncogene status predicts patterns of metastatic spread in treatment-naive nonsmall cell lung cancer (pages 4502–4511)

      Robert C. Doebele, Xian Lu, Christopher Sumey, DeLee A. Maxson, Andrew J. Weickhardt, Ana B. Oton, Paul A. Bunn Jr, Anna E. Barón, Wilbur A. Franklin, Dara L. Aisner, Marileila Varella-Garcia and D. Ross Camidge

      Article first published online: 26 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.27409

      Patterns of metastatic spread were evaluated in patients with untreated nonsmall cell lung cancer following subclassification by ALK, EGFR, and KRAS. ALK gene rearrangements were associated with metastases to the pericardium, pleura, and liver.

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      Prognostic implication of metastasis limited to segmental (level 13) and/or subsegmental (level 14) lymph nodes in patients with surgically resected nonsmall cell lung carcinoma and pathologic N1 lymph node status (pages 4512–4518)

      Akiko Miyagi Maeshima, Koji Tsuta, Hisao Asamura and Hitoshi Tsuda

      Article first published online: 26 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.27424

      The highest level of lymph node involvement can stratify the outcome of patients with nonsmall cell carcinoma who have pathologic N1 (pN1) lymph node status. Patients who have pN1 status with metastasis limited to segmental/subsegmental (level 13/14) lymph nodes have an intermediate 5-year disease-free survival rate between that of patients who have pN0 status and other patients with pN1 status.

    17. Melanoma
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      Number of primary melanomas is an independent predictor of survival in patients with metastatic melanoma (pages 4519–4529)

      Rajmohan Murali, Philip T. Brown, Richard F. Kefford, Richard A. Scolyer, John F. Thompson, Michael B. Atkins and Georgina V. Long

      Article first published online: 26 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.27693

      This study of 2942 patients with stage IV melanoma indicates that, in addition to previously established clinical and pathologic factors, a history of multiple primary melanomas is an independent predictor of improved survival. A history of multiple primary melanomas should be incorporated into multivariate analyses of prognostic factors and treatment outcomes in patients with metastatic melanoma.

    18. Neuro-Oncology
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      Dental x-rays and risk of meningioma (pages 4530–4537)

      Elizabeth B. Claus, Lisa Calvocoressi, Melissa L. Bondy, Joellen M. Schildkraut, Joseph L. Wiemels and Margaret Wrensch

      Article first published online: 10 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.26625

      The authors report evidence of an increased risk of meningioma with exposure to dental x-rays, particularly for individuals who are exposed at a young age or with increased frequency. The results support the 2006 recommendations of the American Dental Association and highlight the finding that moderate use of this common and modifiable exposure may be of benefit to patients.

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      Decreasing radiation therapy utilization in adult patients with glioblastoma multiforme : A population-based analysis (pages 4538–4544)

      Gary V. Walker, Jing Li, Anita Mahajan, Mary Frances McAleer, John F. de Groot, Syed S. Azeem and Paul D. Brown

      Article first published online: 22 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.27439

      Patients with supratentorial World Health Organization grade IV glioblastoma in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database from 1973 to 2006 are analyzed to determine the rate of radiation therapy utilization. The data show a decreasing utilization of radiation therapy in patients with glioblastoma over the past 16 years. Patients who are older, who are unmarried, and who have undergone biopsy only are less likely to receive radiation therapy.

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      O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation and low MGMT-encoded protein expression as prognostic markers in glioblastoma patients treated with biodegradable carmustine wafer implants after initial surgery followed by radiotherapy with concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide (pages 4545–4554)

      Emmanuèle Lechapt-Zalcman, Guénaëlle Levallet, Audrey Emmanuelle Dugué, Anne Vital, Marie-Danièle Diebold, Philippe Menei, Philippe Colin, Philippe Peruzzy, Evelyne Emery, Myriam Bernaudin, Françoise Chapon and Jean-Sébastien Guillamo

      Article first published online: 22 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.27441

      O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation status and low MGMT expression are predictors of improved prognosis in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma who undergo surgical resection and receive carmustine-releasing wafer implants followed by a protocol of adjuvant radiotherapy and concomitant oral temozolomide chemotherapy.

    21. Soft Tissue and Bone Sarcoma
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      Impact of carbon ion radiotherapy for unresectable osteosarcoma of the trunk (pages 4555–4563)

      Akira Matsunobu, Reiko Imai, Tadashi Kamada, Takeshi Imaizumi, Hiroshi Tsuji, Hirohiko Tsujii, Yoshiyuki Shioyama, Hiroshi Honda, Shin-ichiro Tatezaki and for the Working Group for Bone and Soft Tissue Sarcomas

      Article first published online: 22 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.27451

      Carbon ion radiotherapy for 78 patients with unresectable osteosarcoma resulted in good local control and survival rates, especially for those with tumors <500 cm3. The treatment provided good long-term functional results without unacceptable morbidity.

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      NY-ESO-1 is a ubiquitous immunotherapeutic target antigen for patients with myxoid/round cell liposarcoma (pages 4564–4570)

      Seth M. Pollack, Achim A. Jungbluth, Benjamin L. Hoch, Erik A. Farrar, Marie Bleakley, David J. Schneider, Elizabeth T. Loggers, Eve Rodler, Janet F. Eary, Ernest U. Conrad, III, Robin L. Jones and Cassian Yee

      Article first published online: 22 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.27446

      The authors demonstrate that the cancer-testis antigen NY-ESO-1 is expressed in 100% of myxoid/round cell liposarcoma (MRCL) tumors tested and that MRCL cell lines can be recognized and specifically lysed by NY-ESO-1–specific effectors in vitro. These results establish NY-ESO-1 as an important target antigen for the treatment of patients with MRCL.

    23. Discipline

      Clinical Trials
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      Therapeutic misconception, misestimation, and optimism in participants enrolled in phase 1 trials (pages 4571–4578)

      Rebecca D. Pentz, Margaret White, R. Donald Harvey, Zachary Luke Farmer, Yuan Liu, Colleen Lewis, Olga Dashevskaya, Taofeek Owonikoko and Fadlo R. Khuri

      Article first published online: 31 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.27397

      Measurements using recent conceptual advances indicate a high proportion of therapeutic misconception (TM) but reveal a complex view of risks and benefits. Continuing to improve understanding of key TM concepts, with attention to risks from nontherapeutic research procedures, is important.

    24. Disparities Research
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      Racial, socioeconomic, and demographic disparities in access to fertility preservation in young women diagnosed with cancer (pages 4579–4588)

      Joseph M. Letourneau, James F. Smith, Erin E. Ebbel, Amaranta Craig, Patricia P. Katz, Marcelle I. Cedars and Mitchell P. Rosen

      Article first published online: 26 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.26649

      Access to fertility counseling and fertility preservation has increased during the past decade for women in California who are survivors of reproductive age cancers. However, disparities with regard to age, education, ethnicity, gender identity, and parity may mark potential areas for improving access in the future.

    25. Epidemiology
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      De novo acute myeloid leukemia risk factors : A Texas case-control study (pages 4589–4596)

      Sara S. Strom, Robert Oum, Kplola Y. Elhor Gbito, Guillermo Garcia-Manero and Yuko Yamamura

      Article first published online: 1 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.27442

      This case-control study indicates that several factors play a role in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) predisposition to possible joint effects. The results suggest that AML is a heterogeneous disease with sex-specific and subtype-specific risk factors that need to be considered when developing risk-prediction models.

    26. Pediatric Oncology
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      Outcome for adolescent and young adult patients with osteosarcoma : A report from the Children's Oncology Group (pages 4597–4605)

      Katherine A. Janeway, Donald A. Barkauskas, Mark D. Krailo, Paul A. Meyers, Cindy L. Schwartz, David H. Ebb, Nita L. Seibel, Holcombe E. Grier, Richard Gorlick and Neyssa Marina

      Article first published online: 17 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.27414

      In children and young adults with osteosarcoma enrolled on North American cooperative group trials, age 18 to 30 years is associated with a statistically significant poorer outcome because of an increased rate of relapse. Poorer outcome in adolescent and young adult patients is not explained by tumor location, a higher incidence of poor histologic response, or metastatic disease at presentation.

    27. Quality of Life
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      Psychometric validation of the female sexual function index (FSFI) in cancer survivors (pages 4606–4618)

      Raymond E. Baser, Yuelin Li and Jeanne Carter

      Article first published online: 22 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.26739

      The Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) displays strong psychometric reliability and validity in this first validation of the instrument in cancer survivors. The results support its continued use for monitoring sexual function and cancer-related dysfunction among sexually active female cancer survivors.

    28. Radiation Oncology
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      Erectile function, incontinence, and other quality of life outcomes following proton therapy for prostate cancer in men 60 years old and younger (pages 4619–4626)

      Bradford S. Hoppe, Romaine C. Nichols, Randal H. Henderson, Christopher G. Morris, Christopher R. Williams, Joseph Costa, Robert B. Marcus Jr, William M. Mendenhall, Zuofeng Li and Nancy P. Mendenhall

      Article first published online: 17 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.27398

      We evaluated patient-reported health-related quality of life following proton therapy for prostate cancer in 262 men ≤60 years old. We found that these young men have excellent outcomes with respect to erectile dysfunction, urinary incontinence, and other health-related quality of life parameters during the first 2 years after treatment.

    29. Supportive Care
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      A multicenter study of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) infection in patients with solid tumors in 3 countries : Early therapy improves outcomes (pages 4627–4633)

      Roy F. Chemaly, Karen J. Vigil, Mustafa Saad, Diana Vilar-Compte, Patricia Cornejo-Juarez, Carolina Perez-Jimenez, Sawsan Mubarak, Mohammed Salhab, Ying Jiang, Bruno Granwehr, Javier A. Adachi and Issam I. Raad

      Article first published online: 22 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.27447

      The 2009/H1N1 pandemic caused severe illness in immunocompromised patients with cancer who had solid tumors. The current study indicates that early initiation of antiviral therapy is crucial in this patient population to decrease morbidity and mortality.

  5. Correspondence

    1. Top of page
    2. CancerScope
    3. Editorials
    4. Review Articles
    5. Original Articles
    6. Correspondence
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    2. You have free access to this content
    3. You have free access to this content
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