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Cancer

Cover image for Vol. 118 Issue 22

15 November 2012

Volume 118, Issue 22

Pages 5451–5720

  1. CancerScope

    1. Top of page
    2. CancerScope
    3. Original Articles
    4. Correspondence
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    3. You have free access to this content
  2. Original Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. CancerScope
    3. Original Articles
    4. Correspondence
    1. Disease Site

      Breast Disease
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      Standardized uptake value by positron emission tomography/computed tomography as a prognostic variable in metastatic breast cancer (pages 5454–5462)

      Patrick G. Morris, Gary A. Ulaner, Anne Eaton, Maurizio Fazio, Komal Jhaveri, Sujata Patil, Laura Evangelista, Joseph Y. Park, Cristian Serna-Tamayo, Jane Howard, Steven Larson, Clifford A. Hudis, Heather L. McArthur and Maxine S. Jochelson

      Article first published online: 19 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.27579

      In a large series of patients with newly diagnosed metastatic breast cancer, the maximum standardized uptake value on positron emission tomography/computed tomography images is associated with prognosis. The maximum standardized uptake value is strongly associated with overall survival in patients with bone metastases on univariate and multivariate analysis but does not reach significance in other metastatic sites.

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      Clinicopathologic features, patterns of recurrence, and survival among women with triple-negative breast cancer in the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (pages 5463–5472)

      Nancy U. Lin, Ann Vanderplas, Melissa E. Hughes, Richard L. Theriault, Stephen B. Edge, Yu-Ning Wong, Douglas W. Blayney, Joyce C. Niland, Eric P. Winer and Jane C. Weeks

      Article first published online: 27 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.27581

      The authors evaluate 15,204 women who presented to National Comprehensive Cancer Network centers with stage I, II, and III breast cancer between January 2000 and December 2006. The results indicate that, relative to patients with hormone receptor-positive/HER2-negative breast cancer, patients with triple-negative tumors have unique presenting features and clinical risk factors, and they experience significantly worse outcomes, even after controlling for age, stage, race, grade, and receipt of adjuvant chemotherapy.

    3. Endocrine Disease
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      Thyroid cancer incidence by histological type and related variants in a mildly iodine-deficient area of Northern Italy, 1998 to 2009 (pages 5473–5480)

      Graziano Ceresini, Luigi Corcione, Maria Michiara, Paolo Sgargi, Giulio Teresi, Annalisa Gilli, Elisa Usberti, Enrico Silini and Gian Paolo Ceda

      Article first published online: 19 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.27591

      This general population study from Northern Italy confirms an increase in thyroid cancer incidence that was accounted for mainly by differentiated tumors. The most significant increases were documented for aggressive variants.

    4. Gastrointestinal Disease
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      A prospective evaluation of the utility of 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography and computed tomography in staging locally advanced gastric cancer (pages 5481–5488)

      Elizabeth Smyth, Heiko Schöder, Vivian E. Strong, Marinela Capanu, David P. Kelsen, Daniel G. Coit and Manish A. Shah

      Article first published online: 1 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.27550

      For patients with operable gastric cancer undergoing surgery, the use of both preoperative FDG-PET and laparoscopy may avoid futile surgery in up to 27% of patients. Economic analysis suggests that use of these staging modalities may result in potential financial savings in addition to avoiding unnecessary surgeries.

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      Clinical significance of SOD2 and GSTP1 gene polymorphisms in Chinese patients with gastric cancer (pages 5489–5496)

      Zhi Xu, Haixia Zhu, John M. Luk, Dongmei Wu, Dongying Gu, Weida Gong, Yongfei Tan, Jianwei Zhou, Jinhai Tang, Zhengdong Zhang, Meilin Wang and Jinfei Chen

      Article first published online: 19 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.27599

      Based on a large cohort of 929 Chinese patients with gastric cancer, this study demonstrates the prognostic value of the superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) rs4880 single nucleotide polymorphism and the glutathione S-transferase π 1 (GSTP1) rs1695 single nucleotide polymorphism in overall survival and their associations with regional lymph node metastasis and tumor size, respectively. The authors suggest that the components of reactive oxygen species metabolism pathways may be potential therapeutic targets for this aggressive malignancy.

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      Fractionated radioimmunotherapy with 90Y-clivatuzumab tetraxetan and low-dose gemcitabine is active in advanced pancreatic cancer : A phase 1 trial (pages 5497–5506)

      Allyson J. Ocean, Kenneth L. Pennington, Michael J. Guarino, Arif Sheikh, Tanios Bekaii-Saab, Aldo N. Serafini, Daniel Lee, Max W. Sung, Seza A. Gulec, Stanley J. Goldsmith, Timothy Manzone, Michael Holt, Bert H. O'Neil, Nathan Hall, Alberto J. Montero, John Kauh, David V. Gold, Heather Horne, William A. Wegener and David M. Goldenberg

      Article first published online: 8 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.27592

      Clivatuzumab tetraxetan (PAM4) immunoglobulin G binds to a mucin antigen that is highly specific for human pancreatic ductal cancer and demonstrates promising antitumor activity in preclinical and clinical testing as a 90Y-labeled conjugate alone. The authors report the first evidence of objective responses and improved survival in advanced pancreatic ductal cancer when combining low-dose gemcitabine with fractionated 90Y-PAM4 immunoglobulin G.

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      Stepwise cumulation of RUNX3 methylation mediated by Helicobacter pylori infection contributes to gastric carcinoma progression (pages 5507–5517)

      Xiao-Xiao Lu, Jiang-Liu Yu, Li-Sha Ying, Jing Han, Shi Wang, Qi-Ming Yu, Xin-Bao Wang, Xian-Hua Fang and Zhi-Qiang Ling

      Article first published online: 10 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.27604

      Runt-related transcription factor 3 (RUNX3) methylation is a risk factor for the carcinogenesis of chronic atrophic gastritis with Helicobacter pylori infection. Circulating RUNX3 methylation is a valuable biomarker for the detection of early gastric cancer.

    8. Genitourinary Disease
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      Primary care providers' perspectives on discontinuing prostate cancer screening (pages 5518–5524)

      Craig E. Pollack, Elizabeth A. Platz, Nrupen A. Bhavsar, Gary Noronha, Gene E. Green, Sean Chen and H. Ballentine Carter

      Article first published online: 19 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.27577

      In this survey of primary care providers, the majority of respondents (59.3%) take both age and life expectancy into account in deciding when to discontinue prostate-specific antigen-based prostate cancer screening. However, providers report difficulty assessing life expectancy and multiple barriers to discontinuing screening.

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      The long-term outcome of treated high-risk nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer : Time to change treatment paradigm? (pages 5525–5534)

      Francis Thomas, Derek J. Rosario, Naomi Rubin, John R. Goepel, Maysam F. Abbod and James W. F. Catto

      Article first published online: 27 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.27587

      The progression of high-risk nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer is associated with a poor prognosis, suggesting that surveillance is ineffective in altering the natural history of the disease. The time has come to rethink the paradigm of management of this disease.

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      Assessment of the American Joint Committee on Cancer Staging (sixth and seventh editions) for clinically localized prostate cancer treated with external beam radiotherapy and comparison with the National Comprehensive Cancer Network risk-stratification method (pages 5535–5543)

      Nicholas G. Zaorsky, Tianyu Li, Karthik Devarajan, Eric M. Horwitz and Mark K. Buyyounouski

      Article first published online: 27 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.27597

      A comparison of the American Joint Cancer Committee (AJCC) Cancer Staging Manual between the sixth and seventh editions indicates that the seventh edition is a major improvement, because it distributes patients better among the stages and is more prognostic. However, the National Comprehensive Cancer Network model is superior to the AJCC seventh edition and remains the preferred method for risk-based clinical management of prostate cancer with radiotherapy.

    11. Hematologic Malignancies
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      Prognostic factors associated with progression of smoldering multiple myeloma to symptomatic form (pages 5544–5549)

      Angela Rago, Sara Grammatico, Tommaso Za, Anna Levi, Sergio Mecarocci, Agostina Siniscalchi, Luca De Rosa, Stefano Felici, Velia Bongarzoni, Anna Lina Piccioni, Giacinto La Verde, Francesco Pisani, Luca Franceschini, Anna Lisa Paviglianiti, Tommaso Caravita, Maria Teresa Petrucci, Valerio De Stefano, Giuseppe Cimino and on behalf of the Multiple Myeloma GIMEMA-Latium Region Working Group

      Article first published online: 11 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.27657

      Although confirmatory of previous studies, the present data are relevant because they suggest a change in clinical practice for smoldering multiple myeloma with a bone marrow plasma cell infiltration ≥60% at diagnosis. A comparison on the prognostic value of bone marrow aspirate and biopsy in the setting of smoldering multiple myeloma is reported for the first time.

      Corrected by:

      Erratum: Erratum

      Vol. 119, Issue 6, 1289, Article first published online: 26 NOV 2012

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      Clinical and proteomic characterization of acute myeloid leukemia with mutated RAS (pages 5550–5559)

      Tapan M. Kadia, Hagop Kantarjian, Steven Kornblau, Gautam Borthakur, Stefan Faderl, Emil J. Freireich, Raja Luthra, Guillermo Garcia-Manero, Sherry Pierce, Jorge Cortes and Farhad Ravandi

      Article first published online: 8 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.27596

      Activating mutations in RAS are frequently present in acute myeloid leukemia and are associated with certain cytogenetic and morphologic subtypes. In the current study, RAS mutations did not appear to have a prognostic impact on outcome overall or within subgroups.

    13. Hepatobiliary Disease
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      Proteasome inhibitor interacts synergistically with autophagy inhibitor to suppress proliferation and induce apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma (pages 5560–5571)

      Bo Hui, Ying-Hong Shi, Zhen-Bin Ding, Jian Zhou, Cheng-Yu Gu, Yuan-Fei Peng, Hua Yang, Wei-Ren Liu, Guo-Ming Shi and Jia Fan

      Article first published online: 19 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.27586

      Proteasome inhibitors interact synergistically with autophagy inhibitors to suppress proliferation and induce apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma. Simultaneous targeting of the proteasome and autophagy pathway may represent a promising method for treating hepatocellular carcinoma.

    14. Lung Disease
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      Definitive radiotherapy for stage I nonsmall cell lung cancer : A population-based study of survival (pages 5572–5579)

      Michael T. Milano, Hong Zhang, Kenneth Y. Usuki, Deepinder P. Singh and Yuhchyau Chen

      Article first published online: 27 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.27589

      From a population-based registry analysis of patients with stage I nonsmall cell lung cancer who were treated with definitive radiotherapy, male sex and squamous cell carcinoma histology were found to be significantly (albeit modest) adverse prognostic factors for overall and lung cancer cause-specific survival, whereas a more recent calendar year of diagnosis was associated with significantly improved survival outcomes. The significant improvement in survival in more recent years likely reflects technologic advances in the diagnosis of, staging of, and radiotherapy for lung cancer.

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      Phase 2 trial of maintenance bevacizumab alone after bevacizumab plus pemetrexed and carboplatin in advanced, nonsquamous nonsmall cell lung cancer (pages 5580–5587)

      James P. Stevenson, Corey J. Langer, Robert A. Somer, Tracey L. Evans, Kumar Rajagopalan, Kimberly Krieger, Mona Jacobs-Small, Nikolas Dyanick, Barry Milcarek, Susan Coakley, Suzanne Walker, Beth Eaby-Sandy and Alexandre Hageboutros

      Article first published online: 27 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.27576

      Maintenance bevacizumab alone after front-line bevacizumab, pemetrexed, and carboplatin in patients with advanced, nonsquamous nonsmall cell lung cancer produces a median survival of 17.1 months. The treatment regimen is well tolerated overall.

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      Association of EGFR mutation or ALK rearrangement with expression of DNA repair and synthesis genes in never-smoker women with pulmonary adenocarcinoma (pages 5588–5594)

      Shengxiang Ren, Xiaoxia Chen, Peng Kuang, Limou Zheng, Chunxia Su, Jiayu Li, Bing Li, Yongshen Wang, Lu Liu, Qiong Hu, Jie Zhang, Liang Tang, Xuefei Li, Caicun Zhou and Gerald Schmid-Bindert

      Article first published online: 8 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.27603

      Nonsmall cell lung cancer specimens that harbor activating epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations are more likely to express low excision repair cross-complementing 1 (ERCC1) and thymidylate synthetase mRNA levels, whereas patients with nonsmall cell lung cancer who have an anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearrangement are more likely to express low thymidylate synthetase mRNA levels.

    17. Neuro-Oncology
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      Recursive partitioning analysis of prognostic factors for glioblastoma patients aged 70 years or older (pages 5595–5600)

      Jacob G. Scott, Luc Bauchet, Tyler J. Fraum, Lakshmi Nayak, Anna R. Cooper, Samuel T. Chao, John H. Suh, Michael A. Vogelbaum, David M. Peereboom, Sonia Zouaoui, Hélène Mathieu-Daudé, Pascale Fabbro-Peray, Valérie Rigau, Luc Taillandier, Lauren E. Abrey, Lisa M. DeAngelis, Joanna H. Shih and Fabio M. Iwamoto

      Article first published online: 19 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.27570

      Recursive partitioning analysis identified 4 prognostic subgroups of elderly glioblastoma patients with markedly different median survivals: subgroup I = patients <75.5 years of age who underwent surgical resection (9.3 months); subgroup II = patients ≥75.5 years of age who underwent surgical resection (6.4 months); subgroup III = patients with Karnofsky performance status of 70 to 100 who underwent biopsy only (4.6 months); and subgroup IV = patients with Karnofsky performance status <70 who underwent biopsy only (2.3 months).

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      A safety run-in and randomized phase 2 study of cilengitide combined with chemoradiation for newly diagnosed glioblastoma (NABTT 0306) (pages 5601–5607)

      L. Burt Nabors, Thomas Mikkelsen, Monika E. Hegi, Xiaubu Ye, Tracy Batchelor, Glenn Lesser, David Peereboom, Myrna R. Rosenfeld, Jeff Olsen, Steve Brem, Joy D. Fisher, Stuart A. Grossman and for the New Approaches to Brain Tumor Therapy (NABTT) Central Nervous System Consortium

      Article first published online: 19 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.27585

      The integrin antagonist cilengitide is safe when administered with standard chemotherapy and radiation to patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma. Overall survival is improved with the 2000 mg dose given twice weekly concurrent with standard therapy.

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      Conditional probability of long-term survival in glioblastoma : A population-based analysis (pages 5608–5613)

      Derek R. Johnson, Daniel J. Ma, Jan C. Buckner and Julie E. Hammack

      Article first published online: 8 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.27590

      Patients surviving past 2 years from glioblastoma diagnosis have a relatively favorable probability of survival into the future compared with newly diagnosed patients. This effect becomes more pronounced with increasing time since diagnosis, and is influenced by age at diagnosis.

    20. Discipline

      Clinical Trials
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      Long-term neurotoxicity effects of oxaliplatin added to fluorouracil and leucovorin as adjuvant therapy for colon cancer: Results from National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project trials C-07 and LTS-01 (pages 5614–5622)

      Kelley M. Kidwell, Greg Yothers, Patricia A. Ganz, Stephanie R. Land, Clifford Y. Ko, Reena S. Cecchini, Jacek A. Kopec and Norman Wolmark

      Article first published online: 8 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.27593

      In this first long-term (>4 years) assessment of the neurotoxicity effects of oxaliplatin as adjuvant treatment for colon cancer, neurotoxicity scores are compared between treatment groups for those who did and did not receive oxaliplatin. At the long-term endpoint, neurotoxicity scores do not differ clinically between treatment groups, but the specific effects of numbness and tingling of the hands and feet are elevated significantly for oxaliplatin-treated patients.

    21. Epidemiology
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      Completion of the human papillomavirus vaccine series among insured females between 2006 and 2009 (pages 5623–5629)

      Jacqueline M. Hirth, Alai Tan, Gregg S. Wilkinson and Abbey B. Berenson

      Article first published online: 27 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.27598

      The percentage of insured females who complete the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine series is declining, particularly among females aged 9 years to 12 years and 13 years to 18 years. Physicians should increase their efforts to encourage their patients to complete the HPV vaccine series.

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      Genetic variation in innate immunity and inflammation pathways associated with lung cancer risk (pages 5630–5636)

      Meredith S. Shiels, Eric A. Engels, Jianxin Shi, Maria Teresa Landi, Demetrius Albanes, Nilanjan Chatterjee, Stephen J. Chanock, Neil E. Caporaso and Anil K. Chaturvedi

      Article first published online: 8 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.27605

      The authors conduct a broad evaluation of the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in innate immunity and inflammation pathways with lung cancer risk and compare their results with a lung cancer genome-wide association study (GWAS). A significant association is observed between a variant in the NFKB1 gene and the risk of lung cancer.

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      Association between contralateral prophylactic mastectomy and breast cancer outcomes by hormone receptor status (pages 5637–5643)

      Abenaa M. Brewster, Isabelle Bedrosian, Patricia A. Parker, Wenli Dong, Susan K. Peterson, Scott B. Cantor, Melissa Crosby and Yu Shen

      Article first published online: 19 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.27574

      The study examined the association between contralateral prophylactic mastectomy and disease-free and overall survival in a large cohort of patients with early-stage breast cancer, applying the propensity score method to reduce the impact of selection bias. Contralateral prophylactic mastectomy was associated with improved disease-free survival for some patients with hormone receptor–negative breast cancer, suggesting that certain subsets of patients may be more likely to benefit from the procedure than others.

    24. Medical Oncology
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      Adherence to surveillance care guidelines after breast and colorectal cancer treatment with curative intent (pages 5644–5651)

      Ramzi G. Salloum, Mark C. Hornbrook, Paul A. Fishman, Debra P. Ritzwoller, Maureen C. O'Keeffe Rossetti and Jennifer Elston Lafata

      Article first published online: 20 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.27544

      Using cohorts of breast and colorectal cancer survivors receiving care from 4 geographically diverse health maintenance organizations between 2000 and 2008, the extent to which surveillance care use was consistent with guideline recommendations is evaluated. Findings highlight the wide variations that exist in cancer surveillance care despite the uniformity of recommended surveillance care protocols.

    25. Outcomes Research
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      The Cancer Survival Query System: Making survival estimates from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program more timely and relevant for recently diagnosed patients (pages 5652–5662)

      Eric J. Feuer, Minjung Lee, Angela B. Mariotto, Kathy A. Cronin, Steve Scoppa, David F. Penson, Mark Hachey, Laurie Cynkin, Ginger A. Carter, David Campbell, Antoinette Percy-Laurry, Zhaohui Zou, Deborah Schrag and Benjamin F. Hankey

      Article first published online: 8 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.27615

      A nomogram for predicting crude survival for patients with prostate cancer in the presence of competing risks based on a profile of an individual patient's prognostic factors has been developed using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program database.

      Corrected by:

      Erratum: Erratum

      Vol. 119, Issue 8, 1602–1604, Article first published online: 27 DEC 2012

    26. Pediatric Oncology
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      Topotecan and vincristine combination is effective against advanced bilateral intraocular retinoblastoma and has manageable toxicity (pages 5663–5670)

      Ibrahim Qaddoumi, Catherine A. Billups, Michael Tagen, Clinton F. Stewart, Jianrong Wu, Kathleen Helton, M. Beth McCarville, Thomas E. Merchant, Rachel Brennan, Tammy M. Free, Vicki Given, Barrett G. Haik, Carlos Rodriguez-Galindo and Matthew W. Wilson

      Article first published online: 19 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.27563

      Topotecan and vincristine is an effective combination for the treatment of advanced intraocular retinoblastoma, and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor treatment alleviates the duration of grade 4 neutropenia. Appropriate topotecan starting doses for patients <1 year of age are specified.

    27. Psychosocial Oncology
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      Measuring psychosocial distress and parenting concerns among adults with cancer : The Parenting Concerns Questionnaire (pages 5671–5678)

      Anna C. Muriel, Cynthia W. Moore, Lee Baer, Elyse R. Park, Alice B. Kornblith, William Pirl, Holly Prigerson, Jennifer Ing and Paula K. Rauch

      Article first published online: 19 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.27572

      Qualitative and quantitative methods were used to develop a Parenting Concerns Questionnaire for use in adults with cancer who have dependent children. The 15-item instrument demonstrates good internal consistency and concurrent validity, given associations with validated measures of psychosocial distress; further study is indicated.

    28. Quality of Life
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      Impact of diagnosis and treatment of clinically localized prostate cancer on health-related quality of life for older Americans : A population-based study (pages 5679–5687)

      Bryce B. Reeve, Angela M. Stover, Roxanne E. Jensen, Ronald C. Chen, Kathryn L. Taylor, Steven B. Clauser, Sean P. Collins and Arnold L. Potosky

      Article first published online: 27 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.27578

      In this population-based, prospective study, the authors measure health-related quality of life among older men with prostate cancer both before and after cancer diagnosis and compare changes in patients' health-related quality of life relative to matched controls without cancer. Men with prostate cancer experience significant health-related quality of life decrements in the first 12 months after diagnosis relative to controls, and some deficits persist beyond that period.

    29. Symptom Control and Palliative Care
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      Variations in pain management outcomes among palliative care centers and the impact of organizational factors (pages 5688–5697)

      Dong Wook Shin, Seung Sik Hwang, Juhwan Oh, Jung Hoe Kim, Jong Hyock Park, Juhee Cho, Belong Cho, Kee Taig Jung and Eun-Cheol Park

      Article first published online: 8 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.26722

      There are significant variations in pain management outcomes among inpatient palliative care centers. These outcomes are affected by organizational factors, such as the adequacy of human resources.

    30. Translational Research
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      Interleukin-13 receptor alpha2 is a novel therapeutic target for human adrenocortical carcinoma (pages 5698–5708)

      Meenu Jain, Lisa Zhang, Mei He, Erin E. Patterson, Naris Nilubol, Antonio T. Fojo, Bharat Joshi, Raj Puri and Electron Kebebew

      Article first published online: 8 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.27629

      In this study of interleukin-13 receptor alpha2 (IL13Rα2) expression in 134 human adrenocortical tissue samples, IL13Rα2 is overexpressed in 100% of adrenocortical carcinomas. IL13Rα2 also directly regulates cell invasion and proliferation in adrenocortical carcinoma cells and is identified as a novel therapeutic target for human adrenocortical carcinoma using IL-13 Pseudomonas exotoxin, in both in vitro and in vivo models.

    31. Clinical Trials
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      Phase 3, randomized, placebo-controlled study of zibotentan (ZD4054) in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer metastatic to bone (pages 5709–5718)

      Joel B. Nelson, Karim Fizazi, Kurt Miller, Celestia Higano, Judd W. Moul, Hideyuki Akaza, Thomas Morris, Stuart McIntosh, Kristine Pemberton and Martin Gleave

      Article first published online: 11 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.27674

      This large, randomized, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial evaluated the endothelin A receptor antagonist zibotentan in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer metastatic to bone. Treatment with zibotentan 10 mg/day did not lead to a statistically significant improvement in overall survival in this patient population.

  3. Correspondence

    1. Top of page
    2. CancerScope
    3. Original Articles
    4. Correspondence
    1. You have free access to this content
    2. You have free access to this content

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