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Cancer

Cover image for Vol. 120 Issue 13

1 July 2014

Volume 120, Issue 13

Pages 1911–2068

  1. Issue information

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue information
    3. CancerScope
    4. Editorials
    5. Review Article
    6. Original Articles
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      Issue information (pages i–ix)

      Version of Record online: 15 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.29667

  2. CancerScope

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue information
    3. CancerScope
    4. Editorials
    5. Review Article
    6. Original Articles
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    2. You have free access to this content
    3. You have free access to this content
  3. Editorials

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue information
    3. CancerScope
    4. Editorials
    5. Review Article
    6. Original Articles
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      The 2014 Surgeon General's report: “The Health Consequences of Smoking–50 Years of Progress”: A paradigm shift in cancer care (pages 1914–1916)

      Graham W. Warren, Anthony J. Alberg, Andrew S. Kraft and K. Michael Cummings

      Version of Record online: 28 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.28695

      To the authors' knowledge, the 2014 Surgeon General's report “The Health Consequences of Smoking-50 Years of Progress” provides the first large evidence review of the effects of smoking on the outcomes of patients with cancer, concluding that smoking causes adverse health outcomes, increases all-cause mortality, and increases cancer-specific mortality. This causal evidence has profound implications on providing high-quality cancer care by emphasizing the need to address tobacco use in all patients with cancer.

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      Patient-derived sarcoma xenografts for individual-patient selection of chemotherapy—ready for prime time? (pages 1917–1919)

      Andrew J. Wagner

      Version of Record online: 4 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.28694

      Patient-derived sarcoma tumor xenografts can be successfully grown in mice and tested for sensitivity to chemotherapy regimens. Are these tests ready to guide patient care?

  4. Review Article

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue information
    3. CancerScope
    4. Editorials
    5. Review Article
    6. Original Articles
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      RET gene mutations (genotype and phenotype) of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 and familial medullary thyroid carcinoma (pages 1920–1931)

      Geoffrey W. Krampitz and Jeffrey A. Norton

      Version of Record online: 3 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.28661

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      MEN2 is a genetic syndrome caused by mutations in the RET proto-oncogene with different penetrance producing 3 variants, MEN2A, MEN2B, and FMTC, each of which is characterized by MTC. The discovery of RET mutations that cause MEN2 lead to the development of genetic testing that enabled personalized approaches to diagnosis, risk stratification, and appropriate treatment.

  5. Original Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue information
    3. CancerScope
    4. Editorials
    5. Review Article
    6. Original Articles
    1. Disease Site

      Breast Disease
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      Effect of adjuvant/neoadjuvant trastuzumab on clinical outcomes in patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer (pages 1932–1938)

      Rashmi K. Murthy, Ankur Varma, Priyankana Mishra, Kenneth R. Hess, Elliana Young, James L. Murray, Kimberly H. Koenig, Stacy L. Moulder, Amal Melhem-Bertrandt, Sharon H. Giordano, Daniel Booser, Vicente Valero, Gabriel N. Hortobagyi and Francisco J. Esteva

      Version of Record online: 26 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.28689

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      Trastuzumab-naive patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive metastatic breast cancer have superior clinical outcomes to those patients treated with trastuzumab-based therapy. Prior trastuzumab exposure should be considered in the design of clinical trials and sequencing of HER2-targeted therapies.

    2. Chest and Lung Disease
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      Use and impact of adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with resected non-small cell lung cancer (pages 1939–1947)

      Christina D. Williams, Ajeet Gajra, Apar K. Ganti and Michael J. Kelley

      Version of Record online: 25 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.28679

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      Despite clinical trials demonstrating improved survival with adjuvant chemotherapy for patients with American Joint Committee on Cancer stages I to III non–small cell lung cancer, it is unclear whether this survival benefit extends to broader populations. In the current study, a majority of patients did not receive adjuvant chemotherapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy was found to be associated with improvement in overall survival.

    3. Gastrointestinal Disease
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      Identification of a characteristic copy number alteration profile by high-resolution single nucleotide polymorphism arrays associated with metastatic sporadic colorectal cancer (pages 1948–1959)

      María González-González, Celia Fontanillo, María M. Abad, María L. Gutiérrez, Ines Mota, Oscar Bengoechea, Ángel Santos-Briz, Oscar Blanco, Emilio Fonseca, Juana Ciudad, Manuel Fuentes, Javier De Las Rivas, José A. Alcazar, Jacinto García, Luís Muñoz-Bellvis, Alberto Orfao and José M. Sayagués

      Version of Record online: 25 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.28681

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      The authors use high-resolution single nucleotide polymorphism arrays to identify a characteristic copy number alteration profile at diagnosis that involves losses of chromosomes 1p, 17p, and 18q together with gains of chromosomes 7 and 13 among patients with metastatic versus nonmetastatic primary sporadic colorectal cancer. This copy number profile also is associated with poorer patient outcomes, and the involved chromosomal regions harbor specific genes associated with colorectal cancer and/or the metastatic process.

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      BRCA1 and BRCA2 germline mutations are frequently demonstrated in both high-risk pancreatic cancer screening and pancreatic cancer cohorts (pages 1960–1967)

      Aimee L. Lucas, Laura E. Frado, Caroline Hwang, Sheila Kumar, Lauren G. Khanna, Elana J. Levinson, John A. Chabot, Wendy K. Chung and Harold Frucht

      Version of Record online: 15 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.28662

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      The results of the current study demonstrate a yield of 18.9% for clinical BRCA1 and BRCA2 germline genetic testing in an unaffected cohort of patients at high risk of developing pancreatic cancer, and 21.8% in an affected cohort of patients with pancreatic cancer, suggesting that both BRCA1 and BRCA2 testing is useful in pancreatic cancer risk stratification and alters risk assignment and screening recommendations for mutation-positive patients and their families. Clinical BRCA1/2 testing should be considered in patients of Ashkenazi Jewish descent with a personal or family history of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, even in the absence of a family history of breast and ovarian cancer.

    5. Head and Neck Disease
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      The prognosis of N2b and N2c lymph node disease in oral squamous cell carcinoma is determined by the number of metastatic lymph nodes rather than laterality: Evidence to support a revision of the American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system (pages 1968–1974)

      Ardalan Ebrahimi, Ziv Gil, Moran Amit, Tzu-Chen Yen, Chun-Ta Liao, Pankaj Chaturvedi, Jai Prakash Agarwal, Luiz P. Kowalski, Hugo F. Kohler, Matthias Kreppel, Claudio R. Cernea, Jose Brandao, Gideon Bachar, Andrea Bolzoni Villaret, Dan Fliss, Eran Fridman, K. Thomas Robbins, Jatin P. Shah, Snehal G. Patel, Jonathan R. Clark and The International Consortium for Outcome Research (ICOR) in Head and Neck Cancer.

      Version of Record online: 1 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.28686

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      This multicenter international study of 3704 patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma demonstrated significant heterogeneity in prognosis based on the number of metastatic lymph nodes (≤ 2, 3–4, and ≥ 5) in patients with both N2b and N2c lymph node disease. Furthermore, the prognoses of patients with N2b and N2c disease were similar after adequate adjustment for the burden of lymph node metastases, irrespective of laterality. Based on these results, the authors propose a modification of the American Joint Committee on Cancer lymph node staging system that is associated with a significant improvement in prognostic accuracy.

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      Patterns of symptom burden during radiotherapy or concurrent chemoradiotherapy for head and neck cancer: A prospective analysis using the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center Symptom Inventory-Head and Neck Module (pages 1975–1984)

      David I. Rosenthal, Tito R. Mendoza, Clifton D. Fuller, Katherine A. Hutcheson, X. Shelley Wang, Ehab Y. Hanna, Charles Lu, Adam S. Garden, William H. Morrison, Charles S. Cleeland and G. Brandon Gunn

      Version of Record online: 7 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.28672

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      This prospective, patient-reported, symptom assessment study revealed the pattern and severity of both local and systemic symptoms, symptom clusters, and symptom interference during radiotherapy or concurrent chemoradiotherapy for patients with head and neck cancer. These findings will facilitate the rational development of needed clinical studies for symptom and symptom cluster intervention and prevention.

    7. Hematologic Malignancies
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      Feasibility, efficacy, and adverse effects of outpatient antibacterial prophylaxis in children with acute myeloid leukemia (pages 1985–1992)

      Hiroto Inaba, Aditya H. Gaur, Xueyuan Cao, Patricia M. Flynn, Stanley B. Pounds, Viswatej Avutu, Lindsay N. Marszal, Scott C. Howard, Ching-Hon Pui, Raul C. Ribeiro, Randall T. Hayden and Jeffrey E. Rubnitz

      Version of Record online: 26 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.28688

      Outpatient intravenous antibiotic prophylaxis reduces the incidence of clinically or microbiologically documented infection and bacteremia, especially viridans streptococcal bacteremia, in children receiving treatment for acute myeloid leukemia. However, vancomycin-resistant enterococcal bacteremia has been documented in patients receiving antibiotic prophylaxis, and approaches to minimize resistance should be explored.

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      Comparison of referring and final pathology for patients with T-cell lymphoma in the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (pages 1993–1999)

      Alex F. Herrera, Allison Crosby-Thompson, Jonathan W. Friedberg, Gregory A. Abel, Myron S. Czuczman, Leo I. Gordon, Mark S. Kaminski, Michael M. Millenson, Auayporn P. Nademanee, Joyce C. Niland, Scott J. Rodig, Maria A. Rodriguez, Andrew D. Zelenetz and Ann S. LaCasce

      Version of Record online: 4 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.28676

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      A high discordance rate was observed between referring diagnoses and expert hematopathology review of T-cell lymphomas. In 1 in 10 patients, expert review resulted in a pathologic reclassification that may have impacted treatment.

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      Incidence of chronic lymphocytic leukemia and high-count monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis using the 2008 guidelines (pages 2000–2005)

      Timothy G. Call, Aaron D. Norman, Curtis A. Hanson, Sara J. Achenbach, Neil E. Kay, Clive S. Zent, Wei Ding, James R. Cerhan, Kari G. Rabe, Celine M. Vachon, Emily J. Hallberg, Tait D. Shanafelt and Susan L. Slager

      Version of Record online: 7 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.28690

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      The incidence rates per 100,000 population of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and high-count monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis using the International Workshop on Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia 2008 criteria are 6.8 per 100,000 and 3.5 per 100,000, respectively. The median time to treatment for chronic lymphocytic leukemia classified according to those 2008 criteria versus the National Cancer Institute Working Group 1996 criteria is shorter (6.5 years vs 9.2 years).

    10. Soft Tissue and Bone Sarcoma
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      Patient-derived xenografts for individualized care in advanced sarcoma (pages 2006–2015)

      Justin Stebbing, Keren Paz, Gary K. Schwartz, Leonard H. Wexler, Robert Maki, Raphael E. Pollock, Ronnie Morris, Richard Cohen, Arjun Shankar, Glen Blackman, Victoria Harding, David Vasquez, Jonathan Krell, Daniel Ciznadija, Amanda Katz and David Sidransky

      Version of Record online: 4 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.28696

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      Each cancer in each individual patient is a separate, heterogynous entity endowed with a unique natural history and a variable number of usually unpredictable, patient-specific, interacting events. The results herein support the use of patient-derived xenografts in sarcoma as a reliable and consistent method to provide direction for optimizing personalized cancer treatment.

    11. Discipline

      Clinical Trials
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      A randomized, open-label clinical trial of tasisulam sodium versus paclitaxel as second-line treatment in patients with metastatic melanoma (pages 2016–2024)

      Omid Hamid, Robert Ilaria Jr, Claus Garbe, Pascal Wolter, Michele Maio, Thomas E. Hutson, Ana Arance, Paul Lorigan, Jeeyun Lee, Axel Hauschild, Peter Mohr, Marjo Hahka-Kemppinen, Christopher Kaiser, P. Kellie Turner, Ilaria Conti and Jean-Jacques Grob

      Version of Record online: 26 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.28635

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      The current phase 3 melanoma trial demonstrated greater hematologic toxicity in the group of patients treated with tasisulam compared with those receiving paclitaxel, which was attributed to low tasisulam clearance in a subset of patients. These results underscore the importance of pharmacokinetic monitoring of compounds with complex dosing, even in late-phase studies.

    12. Disparities Research
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      The longitudinal impact of patient navigation on equity in colorectal cancer screening in a large primary care network (pages 2025–2031)

      Sanja Percac-Lima, Lenny López, Jeffrey M. Ashburner, Alexander R. Green and Steven J. Atlas

      Version of Record online: 1 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.28682

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      A patient navigation program for colorectal cancer screening improves equity in cancer care for vulnerable patients over a 5-year period. Colorectal cancer screening rates among Latino and non-English–speaking patients at a practice with patient navigation increase over time and become significantly higher than in practices without patient navigation.

    13. Epidemiology
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      Increased age and race-specific incidence of cervical cancer after correction for hysterectomy prevalence in the United States from 2000 to 2009 (pages 2032–2038)

      Anne F. Rositch, Rebecca G. Nowak and Patti E. Gravitt

      Version of Record online: 12 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.28548

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      Correction for hysterectomy resulted in higher age-specific cervical cancer incidence rates, a shift in the peak incidence to older women, and an increase in the disparity in cervical cancer incidence between black and white women. Given the high and nondeclining rate of cervical cancer in women over the age of 60 to 65 years, when women are eligible to exit screening, risk and screening guidelines for cervical cancer may need to be reconsidered.

    14. Outcomes Research
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      Octreotide long-acting repeatable use among elderly patients with carcinoid syndrome and survival outcomes: A population-based analysis (pages 2039–2049)

      Chan Shen, Ya-Chen Tina Shih, Ying Xu and James C. Yao

      Version of Record online: 26 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.28653

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      This retrospective study suggests a possible survival benefit for the use of octreotide long-acting repeatable (LAR) in elderly patients with distant-stage neuroendocrine tumors with carcinoid syndrome. It also suggests that octreotide LAR is underused in this population despite recommended guidelines.

    15. Pediatric Oncology
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      Striking dichotomy in outcome of MYCN-amplified neuroblastoma in the contemporary era (pages 2050–2059)

      Brian H. Kushner, Shakeel Modak, Kim Kramer, Michael P. LaQuaglia, Karima Yataghene, Ellen M. Basu, Stephen S. Roberts and Nai-Kong V. Cheung

      Version of Record online: 1 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.28687

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      While patients with MYCN-nonamplified, high-risk neuroblastoma display a broad, continuous spectrum of response/outcome, patients with MYCN-amplified neuroblastoma either have an excellent response to induction with a good long-term outcome or develop early progressive disease with rapid demise. This striking dichotomy supports investigating the 2 subsets of MYCN-amplified tumors to identify prognostic markers at diagnosis that also may yield insights for targeted therapy.

    16. Radiation Oncology
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      Influence of conformal radiotherapy technique on survival after chemoradiotherapy for patients with stage III non-small cell lung cancer in the National Cancer Data Base (pages 2060–2068)

      David J. Sher, Matthew Koshy, Michael J. Liptay and Mary Jo Fidler

      Version of Record online: 1 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.28677

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      In this large national database of patients treated for stage III non–small cell lung cancer with definitive chemoradiotherapy, the use of conformal radiotherapy was found to significantly improve overall survival. This finding highlights the importance of radiotherapy delivery and optimal locoregional therapy for the successful treatment of this disease.

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