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Cancer

Cover image for Cancer

1 June 2002

Volume 94, Issue 11

Pages 2801–3072

  1. Original Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Original Articles
    3. Book Review
    4. Erratum
    1. Disease Site

      Breast Disease
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      Breast and cervical carcinoma screening practices among women in rural and nonrural areas of the United States, 1998–1999 (pages 2801–2812)

      Steven S. Coughlin, Trevor D. Thompson, H. Irene Hall, Pamela Logan and Robert J. Uhler

      Article first published online: 23 MAY 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.10577

      Differences in cancer screening were observed across rural and nonrural areas of the U.S. Potentially important effect modification by age, race/ethnicity, and physician recommendation was also observed. The results underscore the need for continued efforts to provide breast and cervical carcinoma screening to women in rural areas of the United States.

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      Prognostic factors for death after an isolated local recurrence in patients with early-stage breast carcinoma (pages 2813–2820)

      Monique G. Lê, Rodrigo Arriagada, Marc Spielmann, Jean-Marc Guinebretière and France Rochard

      Article first published online: 23 MAY 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.10572

      The outcome of patients with early-stage breast carcinoma after an isolated local recurrence was not affected by the type of initial treatment or local salvage treatment. The effect of systemic treatments after local recurrence should be evaluated by prospective randomized trials.

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      Predictors for pneumonitis during locoregional radiotherapy in high-risk patients with breast carcinoma treated with high-dose chemotherapy and stem-cell rescue (pages 2821–2829)

      Pehr A. Lind, Lawrence B. Marks, Timothy A. Jamieson, Dennis L. Carter, James J. Vredenburgh, Rodney J. Folz and Leonard R. Prosnitz

      Article first published online: 23 MAY 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.10573

      Pulmonary toxicity during radiotherapy is seen in 50% of high-risk patients with breast carcinoma who were treated with high-dose carmustine- based chemotherapy (HDCT) and stem-cell rescue. Serial pulmonary function testing (PFT) is used to monitor therapy-induced pulmonary toxicity. A patient's nadir and subsequent PFT values are recorded after HDCT. Postponing the start of radiotherapy may be necessary until partial PFT recovery is evident to avoid pulmonary toxicity.

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      Evaluating a risk-based model for mammographic screening of women in their forties (pages 2830–2835)

      Carol P. McPherson and Mary J. Nissen

      Article first published online: 23 MAY 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.10579

      Gail and Rimer developed a risk-based model to identify which women in their 40s should be recommended for mammography screening. When this model was applied retrospectively to women in their 40s who had been diagnosed with breast cancer, one in four would not have been recommended for screening.

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      Racial/ethnic differences in survival rates in a population-based series of men with breast carcinoma (pages 2836–2843)

      Cynthia D. O'Malley, Angela W. Prehn, Sarah J. Shema and Sally L. Glaser

      Article first published online: 23 MAY 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.10521

      Survival following male breast carcinoma differed by race/ethnicity, whereas the prognostic factors associated with survival were similar.

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      African-American ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and breast cancer survival : A meta–analysis of 14 studies involving over 10,000 African-American and 40,000 white American patients with carcinoma of the breast (pages 2844–2854)

      Lisa A. Newman, James Mason, David Cote, Yael Vin, Kathryn Carolin, David Bouwman and Graham A. Colditz

      Article first published online: 23 MAY 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.10575

      It is likely that socioeconomic disadvantages at least partially account for the increased breast cancer mortality rates observed among African-American women compared with white American women. This meta–analysis of published breast cancer survival studies, which were stratified by ethnicity and adjusted for disease stage as well as socioeconomic status, demonstrates that ethnicity has an independent impact on the outcome of patients with breast carcinoma. 2855

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      ErbB2 overexpression correlates with increased expression of vascular endothelial growth factors A, C, and D in human breast carcinoma (pages 2855–2861)

      Wentao Yang, Kristine Klos, Ying Yang, Terry L. Smith, Daren Shi and Dihua Yu

      Article first published online: 23 MAY 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.10553

      This article suggests that expression of the angiogenic and lymphangiogenic factors (i.e., vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF]), might be regulated by ErbB2. The combination of VEGF-A and VEGF-C may better predict prognosis of patients with breast carcinoma than VEGF-A alone.

    8. Gastrointestinal Tract
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      How many nodes must be examined to accurately stage gastric carcinomas? : Results from a population based study (pages 2862–2866)

      Anne-Marie Bouvier, Olivier Haas, Françoise Piard, Philippe Roignot, Claire Bonithon-Kopp and Jean Faivre

      Article first published online: 23 MAY 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.10550

      Little is known at a population level about practices currently in use for lymphadenectomies in gastric resections for stomach carcinoma and how many nodes must be examined in order to accurately stage gastric carcinoma. The current study showed that staging is reliable when at least 10 lymph nodes are examined by the pathologist. The number of lymph nodes examined should be used as a stratification criterion in clinical trials and an adjustment variable in survival studies.

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      Prognostic relevance of immunohistochemically detected lymph node micrometastasis in patients with gastric carcinoma (pages 2867–2873)

      Eungseok Lee, Yangseok Chae, Insun Kim, Jongsang Choi, Bomwoo Yeom and Anthony S.-Y. Leong

      Article first published online: 23 MAY 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.10562

      This study showed that micrometastasis detected by immunostaining for broad-spectrum cytokeratin in regional lymph nodes from gastrectomy specimens for the detection of early and advanced gastric carcinoma influenced prognosis significantly.

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      Prognostic value of cyclin B1 in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (pages 2874–2881)

      Shinsuke Takeno, Tsuyoshi Noguchi, Ryuichi Kikuchi, Yuzo Uchida, Shigeo Yokoyama and Wolfram Müller

      Article first published online: 23 MAY 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.10542

      Cyclin B1 expression was correlated with disease progression in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. In this study, patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma tumors that revealed high, frequent expression of cyclin B1 exhibited a poor prognosis.

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      Histologic indices in biopsy specimens for estimating the probability of extended local spread in patients with rectal carcinoma (pages 2882–2891)

      Hideki Ueno, Hidetaka Mochizuki, Eiji Shinto, Yojiro Hashiguchi, Kazuo Hase and Ian C. Talbot

      Article first published online: 23 MAY 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.10551

      Unfavorable characteristics in submucosal invasive regions (tumor “budding”, poor differentiation, and vascular invasion) increased the risk of extended local spread including lateral pelvic lymph node metastasis and pelvic recurrence in a cohort of 437 patients with advanced rectal carcinoma. Further, these characteristics could be estimated successfully by transanal submucosal biopsy, which shows new promise as a preoperative investigation of patients with rectal carcinoma.

    12. Genitourinary Disease
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      Follow-up surveillance strategies for genitourinary malignancies (pages 2892–2905)

      Christopher P. Evans

      Article first published online: 23 MAY 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.10525

      Follow-up strategies for genitourinary malignancies must be rationally planned to maximize detection of tumor recurrence, contain costs and preserve patient quality of life. An approach is outline herein.

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      The economic burden of prostate cancer, California, 1998 (pages 2906–2913)

      Wendy Max, Dorothy P. Rice, Hai-Yen Sung, Martha Michel, Wendy Breuer and Xiulan Zhang

      Article first published online: 23 MAY 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.10532

      This article reviews previous studies of the annual cost of all cancers and of prostate cancer. It presents estimates of the direct and indirect costs of prostate cancer, amounting to $360 million in California in 1998.

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      Evaluation of urine CYFRA 21-1 for the detection of primary and recurrent bladder carcinoma (pages 2914–2922)

      Benjamin Nisman, Vivian Barak, Amos Shapiro, Dragan Golijanin, Tamar Peretz and Dov Pode

      Article first published online: 23 MAY 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.10565

      CYFRA 21-1 is a sensitive marker of bladder tumors. It can be used for the noninvasive detection of bladder carcinoma in patients without urinary stones, infections, or previous treatment with bacillus Calmette–Guerin.

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      Facing a prostate cancer diagnosis : Who is at risk for increased distress? (pages 2923–2929)

      Ruben E. Perczek, Michael A. Burke, Charles S. Carver, Arnon Krongrad and Martha K. Terris

      Article first published online: 23 MAY 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.10564

      Avoidant coping predicts increased distress in both cancer and noncancer groups. Adaptation during the first few weeks of the prostate cancer diagnostic process must be considered in both groups.

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      Serum arginase activity in postsurgical monitoring of patients with colorectal carcinoma (pages 2930–2934)

      Zofia Porembska, Anna Skwarek, Magdalena Mielczarek and Anna Barańczyk-Kuźma

      Article first published online: 23 MAY 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.10563

      The determination of serum arginase activity may be a complementary test confirming the occurrence of colorectal carcinoma and can be useful for the early diagnosis of patients with recurrent colorectal carcinoma and/or liver metastases.

    17. Gynecologic Oncology
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      Comparative immunohistochemical studies of bcl-2 and p53 proteins in benign and malignant ovarian endometriotic cysts (pages 2935–2940)

      Farr Nezhat, Carmel Cohen, Jamal Rahaman, Herbert Gretz, Patrick Cole and Tamara Kalir

      Article first published online: 23 MAY 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.10566

      Immunohistochemical staining for bcl-2 and p53 was found to differ in benign areas of malignant endometriotic cysts compared with benign endometriotic cyst controls. These proteins may be involved in the transformation to malignancy.

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      Ribosomal DNA methylation in patients with endometrial carcinoma : An independent prognostic marker (pages 2941–2952)

      Matthew A. Powell, David G. Mutch, Janet S. Rader, Thomas J. Herzog, Tim Hui-Ming Huang and Paul J. Goodfellow

      Article first published online: 23 MAY 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.10559

      Methylation of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences is seen in most malignant endometrial tumors. Absent or low-level tumor rDNA methylation is an independent prognostic marker for poor outcome in patients with endometrial carcinoma and is associated with African-American race.

    19. Head and Neck Disease
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      Docetaxel/cisplatin as first-line chemotherapy in patients with head and neck carcinoma : A Phase II trial (pages 2953–2958)

      Martina Baur, Heinz-Roland Kienzer, Johannes Schweiger, Maria DeSantis, Erich Gerber, Jörg Pont, Marcus Hudec, Annemarie Ulrike Schratter-Sehn, Wolfram Wicke and Christian Dittrich

      Article first published online: 23 MAY 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.10574

      This Phase II study tested the combination of docetaxel and cisplatin as first-line chemotherapy in patients with head and neck carcinoma. The treatment combination represents a highly active regimen that is also highly toxic.

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      Uridine phosphorylase is a potential prognostic factor in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (pages 2959–2966)

      Hitoshi Miyashita, Yuji Takebayashi, James F. Eliason, Fumihiro Fujimori, Yasutaka Nitta, Atsushi Sato, Hidehiro Morikawa, Akira Ohashi, Katutoshi Motegi, Manabu Fukumoto, Shiro Mori and Takafumi Uchida

      Article first published online: 23 MAY 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.10568

      Uridine phosphorylase (UPase) was stained in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma. The staining level of UPase was found to be related to lymph node metastasis and patient prognosis.

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      Squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx : Surgery, radiation therapy, or both (pages 2967–2980)

      James T. Parsons, William M. Mendenhall, Scott P. Stringer, Robert J. Amdur, Russell W. Hinerman, Douglas B. Villaret, Giselle J. Moore-Higgs, Bruce D. Greene, Tod W. Speer, Nicholas J. Cassisi and Rodney R. Million

      Article first published online: 23 MAY 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.10567

      No randomized trials to date have determined whether surgery, radiation therapy, or a combination of both is most effective in the treatment of patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oropharynx. The current findings, along with available data on the functional consequences of treatment, suggest that radiation therapy with or without neck dissection is preferable for the majority of patients with SCC of the oropharynx.

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      The role of diet and specific micronutrients in the etiology of oral carcinoma (pages 2981–2988)

      Eleni Petridou, Athanasios I. Zavras, Dimitrios Lefatzis, Nick Dessypris, George Laskaris, George Dokianakis, John Segas, Chester W. Douglas, Scott R. Diehl and Dimitrios Trichopoulos

      Article first published online: 23 MAY 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.10560

      In the current study, fruits, cereals, dairy products, and olive oil were found to convey protection against oral carcinoma and their effects may be mediated through higher intakes of riboflavin, iron, and magnesium. Thus, the low incidence of oral carcinoma reported in Greece may be explained in part by the higher consumption of the food groups and micronutrients that appear to protect against the disease.

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      Cisplatin, tegafur, and leucovorin : A moderately effective and minimally toxic outpatient neoadjuvant chemotherapy for locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (pages 2989–2995)

      Hung-Ming Wang, Cheng-Su Wang, Jen-Shi Chen, I-How Chen, Chun-Ta Liao and Tung-Chieh Joseph Chang

      Article first published online: 23 MAY 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.10570

      Cisplatin, tegafur, and leucovorin are a moderately effective, minimally toxic outpatient neoadjuvant chemotherapy used for patients with locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN). The low toxicity warrants application of this regimen combined with other active agents or radiotherapy for patients with SCCHN.

    24. Hematologic Malignanies
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      Chronic myelogenous leukemia in T cell lymphoid blastic phase achieving durable complete cytogenetic and molecular remission with imatinib mesylate (STI571; Gleevec) therapy (pages 2996–2999)

      Ehab Atallah, Moshe Talpaz, Susan O'brien, Mary Beth Rios, Jie Qiang Guo, Ralph Arlinghaus, Sofia Fernandes-Reese and Hagop Kantarjian

      Article first published online: 23 MAY 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.10576

      A patient with Philadelphia chromosome positive chronic myelogenous leukemia in T-cell lymphoid blastic phase involving the bone marrow and extramedullary sites was treated with imatinib mesylate therapy and achieved a complete morphologic, cytogenetic, and molecular remission, which had lasted 26+ months at the time of last follow-up. Imatinib mesylate may induce long-term remissions in patients with T-cell lymphoid blastic phase.

    25. Hepatobiliary Tract
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      Adenosquamous carcinoma of the gallbladder warrants resection only if curative resection is feasible (pages 3000–3005)

      Yasuhiro Oohashi, Yoshio Shirai, Toshifumi Wakai, Shigenori Nagakura, Hidenobu Watanabe and Katsuyoshi Hatakeyama

      Article first published online: 23 MAY 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.10578

      Adenosquamous/squamous cell carcinoma of the gallbladder generally has been considered a lethal disease. This study is the first demonstration of the effectiveness of resection for patients with this rare tumor.

    26. Lung Disease
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      Mental state as a possible independent prognostic variable for survival in patients with advanced lung carcinoma (pages 3006–3015)

      Yasuharu Nakahara, Yoshiro Mochizuki, Yoshihiro Miyamoto, Akira Tanaka, Tetsuji Kawamura, Shin Sasaki, Yukiko Nakahara and Yoshitaka Katsura

      Article first published online: 23 MAY 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.10608

      Patients with advanced lung carcinoma were divided into two groups according to the pattern on his/her egogram, a psychologic instrument used to assess the individual's mental state; survival was compared between the two groups. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the patient's mental state may have prognostic significance both in nonsmall cell and small cell lung carcinoma.

    27. Melanoma
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      Intraoperative evaluation of sentinel lymph nodes for metastatic melanoma by imprint cytology (pages 3016–3022)

      Andrew J. Creager, Stephen A. Shiver, Perry Shen, Kim R. Geisinger and Edward A. Levine

      Article first published online: 23 MAY 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.10512

      The use of imprint cytology for the intraoperative evaluation of sentinel lymph node biopsies in patients with malignant melanoma has been reported to be as sensitive and specific as frozen sectioning. The advantages of imprint cytology over frozen sectioning include a decreased turnaround time, simpler preparation, less expense, as avoidance of tissue loss in the cryostat, and freezing artifact.

    28. Neuro-Oncology
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      Low natural killer activity and central nervous system disease as a high-risk prognostic indicator in young patients with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (pages 3023–3031)

      Shinsaku Imashuku, Nobuyuki Hyakuna, Tetsunori Funabiki, Koichiro Ikuta, Masahiro Sako, Asayuki Iwai, Takashi Fukushima, Satoshi Kataoka, Miharu Yabe, Kazuhiro Muramatsu, Urara Kohdera, Hisaya Nakadate, Katsuhiko Kitazawa, Yasunori Toyoda and Eiichi Ishii

      Article first published online: 23 MAY 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.10515

      Young patients (age < 2 years) with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis who have persistent deficient/low natural killer cell activity and/or overt central nervous system disease require timely hematopoietic stem cell transplantation to achieve a cure.

    29. Discipline

      Medical Oncology
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      Prevention of cisplatin-induced acute and delayed emesis by the selective neurokinin-1 antagonists, L-758,298 and MK-869 : A randomized controlled trial (pages 3032–3041)

      Simon Van Belle, Michael R. Lichinitser, Rudolph M. Navari, August M. Garin, Marc L. A. Decramer, Alain Riviere, Myo Thant, Elmer Brestan, Binh Bui, Krista Eldridge, Marina De Smet, Nicole Michiels, Rick R. Reinhardt, Alexandra D. Carides, Judith K. Evans and Barry J. Gertz

      Article first published online: 23 MAY 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.10516

      The antiemetic activity of MK-869, a selective neurokinin-1 antagonist, combined with dexamethasone was compared with a standard serotonin antagonist (ondansetron) combined with dexamethasone in this randomized, controlled clinical trial in patients receiving high-dose cisplatin chemotherapy. The results indicate that MK-869 is particularly effective in the control of delayed emesis (> 24 hours after cisplatin). The findings also support existing data that demonstrated the utility of MK-869 as part of a combination-therapy regimen for the control of acute emesis.

    30. Pediatric Oncology
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      Quantitation of GD2 synthase mRNA by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction : Utility in bone marrow purging of neuroblastoma by anti-GD2 antibody 3F8 (pages 3042–3048)

      Irene Y. Cheung, M. Serena Lo Piccolo, Nancy Collins, Brian H. Kushner and Nai-Kong V. Cheung

      Article first published online: 23 MAY 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.10519

      Tumor cell depletion quantified by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction of GD2 synthase mRNA demonstrated efficacy of anti-GD2 monoclonal antibody 3F8 in bone marrow purging.

    31. Palliative Care
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      A prospective study evaluating the response of patients with unrelieved cancer pain to parenteral opioids (pages 3049–3056)

      Roelien H. Enting, Wendy H. Oldenmenger, Carin C. D. van der Rijt, Erik B. Wilms, Erna J. Elfrink, Ineke Elswijk and Peter A. E. Sillevis Smitt

      Article first published online: 23 MAY 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.10518

      The start of parenteral opioids was evaluated prospectively in 100 patients with cancer pain who failed on conventional opioids. The balance between analgesia and side effects improved considerably, and the strategy was effective in 71% of patients. On the basis of this study, it is suggested that a change of route may suffice: Opioid rotation was not found to be superior. Parenteral opioids may be considered a good alternative to spinal analgesia for patients with unresponsive cancer pain.

    32. Epidemiology
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      Incidence of cancer among patients with knee implants in Sweden, 1980–1994 (pages 3057–3062)

      Jon P. Fryzek, Weimin Ye, Lisa B. Signorello, Loren Lipworth, William J. Blot, Joseph K. Mclaughlin and Olof Nyren

      Article first published online: 23 MAY 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.10580

      Knee implants are becoming more common and health effects should be studied. A significant excess of cancers was not detected at any site in a large cohort of Swedish patients who received knee implants. The recipients were followed for 122,616 person-years.

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      Familial breast carcinoma risks by morphology : A nationwide epidemiologic study from Sweden (pages 3063–3070)

      Kari Hemminki and Charlotta Granström

      Article first published online: 23 MAY 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.10555

      Data from the Swedish Family-Cancer Database show similar familial risks in patients with different morphologic types of breast carcinoma. Risks from mothers and sisters are identical, excluding the recessive effects of inheritance.

  2. Book Review

    1. Top of page
    2. Original Articles
    3. Book Review
    4. Erratum
    1. You have free access to this content
  3. Erratum

    1. Top of page
    2. Original Articles
    3. Book Review
    4. Erratum
    1. You have free access to this content
      Erratum (page 3072)

      Article first published online: 23 MAY 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.10581

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