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Cancer

Cover image for Cancer

1 October 2002

Volume 95, Issue 7

Pages 1397–1610

  1. Editorial

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorial
    3. Original Articles
    1. General Topic

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      Cancer clinical trial recruitment : The emerging role and perspectives of clinical research associates and data managers (pages 1397–1400)

      Martin Tattersall

      Article first published online: 17 SEP 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.10863

      Clinical Research Associates have assumed an expanding role in the conduct and design of clinical trial protocols. The perspectives of these health professionals are presented in the referenced articles, and implications for clinical trials are discussed.

      See also pages 1577–83 and 1584–91.

  2. Original Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorial
    3. Original Articles
    1. Disease Site

      Breast Disease
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      Variations in breast carcinoma treatment in older medicare beneficiaries : Is it black and white? (pages 1401–1414)

      Jeanne S. Mandelblatt, Jon F. Kerner, Jack Hadley, Yi-Ting Hwang, Lynne Eggert, Lenora E. Johnson, Karen Gold and For the OPTIONS (Outcomes and Preferences for Treatment in Older Women Nationwide Study) Research Team

      Article first published online: 17 SEP 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.10825

      Older black women with localized breast carcinoma may have a different experience obtaining treatment than their white counterparts. Although the magnitude of race effects was small, further research is needed to understand fully the role of race and perceptions of ageism and racism in treatment.

    2. Endocrine Disease
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      Morphology and therapeutic strategies for neuroendocrine tumors of the genitourinary tract (pages 1415–1420)

      Burkhard Helpap

      Article first published online: 17 SEP 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.10840

      Although neuroendocrine tumors have been the topic of several published reports, difficulty remains with regard to both the histologic diagnosis of this malignancy and determining the best therapeutic strategy. In the current study, the author discusses the relevance of such tumors occurring in the prostate and urinary bladder.

    3. Gastrointestinal Tract
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      Intake of dietary folate vitamers and risk of colorectal carcinoma : Results from The Netherlands Cohort Study (pages 1421–1433)

      Erik J. M. Konings, R. Alexandra Goldbohm, Henny A. M. Brants, Wim H. M. Saris and Piet A. van den Brandt

      Article first published online: 17 SEP 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.10866

      The relationship between dietary folate intake and the risk of colorectal carcinoma is investigated in a large prospective cohort study in The Netherlands. Dietary folate intake was related inversely to colon and male rectal carcinoma risk.

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      Prognostic factors for the survival of patients with esophageal carcinoma in the U.S. : The importance of tumor length and lymph node status (pages 1434–1443)

      Mohamad A. Eloubeidi, Renee Desmond, Miguel R. Arguedas, Carolyn E. Reed and C. Mel Wilcox

      Article first published online: 17 SEP 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.10868

      The current TNM classification system does not consider the tumor length or the number of lymph nodes in the staging and classification scheme for patients with esophageal carcinoma. Using data from the National Cancer Institute SEER Program, the authors show that tumor length, the number of involved lymph nodes, and the ratio of positive lymph nodes are important prognostic factors for survival in patients with esophageal carcinoma. A revised TNM classification system for esophageal carcinoma may consider including tumor length and number of positive lymph nodes as two important prognostic factors.

    5. Genitourinary Disease
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      Gemcitabine plus epirubicin in patients with advanced urothelial carcinoma who are not eligible for platinum-based regimens (pages 1444–1450)

      Sergio Ricci, Luca Galli, Aldo Chioni, Mauro Iannopollo, Andrea Antonuzzo, Francesco Francesca, Vittorio Vocaturo, Cesare Selli, Cinzia Orlandini and PierFranco Conte

      Article first published online: 17 SEP 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.10860

      The authors evaluated the combination of gemcitabine and epirubicin and found that it was an effective regimen for patients with urothelial carcinoma who were not good candidates for cisplatin-based chemotherapy regimens.

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      A comprehensive and novel predictive modeling technique using detailed pathology factors in men with localized prostate carcinoma (pages 1451–1456)

      Louis Potters, Rosemary Purrazzella, Sheryl Brustein, Paul Fearn, Steven A. Leibel and Michael W. Kattan

      Article first published online: 17 SEP 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.10869

      The current article presents a new and novel modeling technique for predicting outcome in men with prostate carcinoma. This approach encompasses detailed pathology data in addition to standard prognostic factors in a cohort of patients treated with brachytherapy.

    7. Gynecologic Oncology
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      Resources and use of the intensive care unit in patients who undergo surgery for ovarian carcinoma (pages 1457–1462)

      Sandra E. Brooks, Jeonghoon Ahn, C. Daniel Mullins and Claudia R. Baquet

      Article first published online: 17 SEP 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.10872

      To determine the association of age, comorbid illness, and length of stay in an intensive care unit (ICU) in women who undergo surgery for ovarian carcinoma, the authors used a data base from the state of Maryland to conduct a population-based analysis of all women with a primary or secondary diagnosis of ovarian carcinoma who underwent oophorectomy during 1994–1999. The results may form the basis of future prospective studies to develop benchmarks for the use of the ICU in women with ovarian carcinoma.

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      Apoptosis and apoptosis-related factors Bcl-2, Bax, tumor necrosis factor-α, and NF-κB in human endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma (pages 1463–1471)

      Tommi E. Vaskivuo, Frej Stenbäck and Juha S. Tapanainen

      Article first published online: 17 SEP 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.10876

      In endometrial proliferation and hyperplasia a low rate of apoptosis is present. In endometrial Grade II cancer, increased apoptosis is correlated with a decrease in the Bcl-2/Bax ratio and down-regulation of NF-κB.

    9. Head and Neck Disease
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      A Phase I/II trial of concurrent docetaxel and radiation after induction chemotherapy in patients with poor prognosis squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (pages 1472–1481)

      Roy B. Tishler, Charles M. Norris Jr., A. Dimitrios Colevas, Carolyn C. Lamb, Daniel Karp, Paul M. Busse, Asa Nixon, Robert Frankenthaler, Bernadette Lake-Willcutt, Rosemary Costello, Maryann Case and Marshall R. Posner

      Article first published online: 17 SEP 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.10873

      Concurrent docetaxel and radiation was used to treat patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck who had a poor prognosis after they received induction chemotherapy. The data demonstrated a maximum tolerated dose of 25 mg/m2 and evidence of good clinical efficacy for this concurrent chemotherapy-radiation regimen.

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      Transcriptional expression profiles of oral squamous cell carcinomas (pages 1482–1494)

      Eduardo Méndez, Chun Cheng, D. Gregory Farwell, Sherianne Ricks, S. Nicholas Agoff, Neal D. Futran, Ernest A. Weymuller Jr., Nicole C. Maronian, Lue Ping Zhao and Chu Chen

      Article first published online: 17 SEP 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.10875

      The authors identified differences in expression profiles that distinguished oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) tissues from normal control tissues. Results of statistical analysis indicate that OSCC tumors show consistent changes in genetic expression that provide insight into the biology of oral carcinogenesis.

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      Improved outcomes in patients with osteogenic sarcoma of the head and neck (pages 1495–1503)

      Snehal G. Patel, Paul Meyers, Andrew G. Huvos, Suzanne Wolden, Bhuvanesh Singh, Ashok R. Shaha, Jay O. Boyle, David Pfister, Jatin P. Shah and Dennis H. Kraus

      Article first published online: 17 SEP 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.10849

      In the current study, the authors report a considerable improvement in treatment results for patients with osteosarcoma of the head and neck compared with results reported in the literature. Negative margins after surgical resection appear to be the only significant predictor of overall and disease-specific survival.

    12. Hematologic Malignancies
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      The continuing increase in the incidence of primary central nervous system non-Hodgkin lymphoma : A Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results analysis (pages 1504–1510)

      Janet E. Olson, Carol A. Janney, Ravi D. Rao, James R. Cerhan, Paul J. Kurtin, David Schiff, Richard S. Kaplan and Brian Patrick O'Neill

      Article first published online: 17 SEP 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.10851

      Incidence rates for primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) continues to rise in all age groups and both genders, although the rate of PCNSL incidence increase may be slowing. Some of the increase is likely due to HIV, but other factors are undoubtedly involved. Improved diagnostic tools, such as CT or MRI, cannot explain this increase.

    13. Lung Disease
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      A Phase I–II study of sequential administration of topotecan and oral etoposide (toposiomerase I and II inhibitors) in the treatment of patients with small cell lung carcinoma (pages 1511–1519)

      Tony S. K. Mok, Herman Wong, Benny Zee, Kwok Hung Yu, Thomas W. T. Leung, Tak Wai Lee, Anthony Yim, Anthony T. C. Chan, Winnie Yeo, Karen Chak and Philip Johnson

      Article first published online: 17 SEP 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.10836

      The sequential combination of topotecan and etoposide for the treatment of patients with small cell lung carcinoma achieved a response rate of 76.2% in patients with limited disease and 40% in patients extensive disease. The authors identified a dosage for future trials of an oral combination therapy of these two drugs.

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      Phase II trial of irinotecan, paclitaxel and carboplatin in patients with previously untreated Stage IIIB/IV nonsmall cell lung carcinoma (pages 1520–1527)

      Mark A. Socinski, Alan B. Sandler, Valerie K. Israel, Heidi H. Gillenwater, Langdon L. Miller, Paula K. Locker, Alessandro Antonellini, Gary L. Elfring and Ronald B. Natale

      Article first published online: 17 SEP 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.10852

      The combination of CPT-11, paclitaxel, and carboplatin was evaluated in a Phase II trial in advanced nonsmall cell lung carcinoma. This triplet combination was found to be active in this disease setting with an acceptable toxicity profile.

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      Twenty-five years of clinical research for patients with limited-stage small cell lung carcinoma in North America : Meaningful improvements in survival (pages 1528–1538)

      Pasi A. Jänne, Boris Freidlin, Scott Saxman, David H. Johnson, Robert B. Livingston, Frances A. Shepherd and Bruce E. Johnson

      Article first published online: 17 SEP 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.10841

      Phase III studies of limited-stage small cell lung carcinoma conducted in North America between 1972 and 1992 and the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database were evaluated. There have been significant improvements in the median and 5-year survivals during this time period in both Phase III studies and in the SEER database.

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      Evidence of neoangiogenesis and an increase in the number of proliferating cells within the bronchial epithelium of smokers (pages 1539–1545)

      Kenzo Hiroshima, Akira Iyoda, Kiyoshi Shibuya, Hidehisa Hoshino, Yukiko Haga, Tetsuya Toyozaki, Mitsutoshi Shiba, Masayuki Baba, Takehiko Fujisawa and Hidemi Ohwada

      Article first published online: 17 SEP 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.10850

      The proliferation index and the number of microvessels observed in normal bronchial mucosa from smokers were higher compared with those observed in nonsmokers. Additional increases in neoangiogenesis and the number of proliferating cells were seen in mucosa obtained from areas of bronchial hyperplasia, squamous metaplasia, and squamous dysplasia.

    17. You have free access to this content
      Small-volume image-guided radiotherapy using hypofractionated, coplanar, and noncoplanar multiple fields for patients with inoperable Stage I nonsmall cell lung carcinomas (pages 1546–1553)

      Shin-ichi Fukumoto, Hiroki Shirato, Shinichi Shimzu, Shigeaki Ogura, Rikiya Onimaru, Kei Kitamura, Koichi Yamazaki, Kazuo Miyasaka, Masaharu Nishimura and Hirotoshi Dosaka-Akita

      Article first published online: 17 SEP 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.10853

      Hypofractionated small-volume image-guided radiotherapy without breath control is a feasible and beneficial method for the curative treatment of patients with Stage I nonsmall cell lung carcinomas. This treatment has the potential of a high local tumor control rate and low morbidity.

    18. Melanoma
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      Strategies for improving melanoma education and screening for men age ≥ 50 years : Findings from the American Academy of Dermatology National Skin Cancer Screening Program (pages 1554–1561)

      Alan C. Geller, Arthur J. Sober, Zi Zhang, Daniel R. Brooks, Donald R. Miller, Allan Halpern and Barbara A. Gilchrest

      Article first published online: 17 SEP 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.10855

      In this analysis of nearly 250,000 skin cancer screenings, the yield and predictive value for melanoma detection in middle-aged and older men (age ≥ 50 years) surpassed any other age and gender group. In light of new federal recommendations for skin cancer screening, physicians should be especially attuned to this high-risk group.

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      Thin primary cutaneous melanomas : Associated detection patterns, lesion characteristics, and patient characteristics (pages 1562–1568)

      Jennifer L. Schwartz, Timothy S. Wang, Ted A. Hamilton, Lori Lowe, Vernon K. Sondak and Timothy M. Johnson

      Article first published online: 17 SEP 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.10880

      Evaluating the relationship between melanoma thickness and detection patterns, lesion and patient characteristics provide important information that may be used to direct educational activities to specific groups.

    20. Sarcoma
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      Characterization of 11 human sarcoma cell strains : Evaluation of cytogenetics, tumorigenicity, metastasis, and production of angiogenic factors (pages 1569–1576)

      Mei Hu, Garth L. Nicolson, Jonathan C. Trent II, Dihua Yu, Lianglin Zhang, Aiqing Lang, Ann Killary, Lee M. Ellis, Corazon D. Bucana and Raphael E. Pollock

      Article first published online: 17 SEP 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.10879

      The current cell strains derived from diverse sarcoma histologies provide a model for studying not only tumorigenesis, metastasis, and angiogenesis, but also the in vitro and in vivo efficacy of new therapeutic strategies for human sarcomas.

    21. Discipline

      Clinical Trials
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      Barriers and facilitators to enrollment in cancer clinical trials : Qualitative study of the perspectives of clinical research associates (pages 1577–1583)

      Eva Grunfeld, Louise Zitzelsberger, Marjorie Coristine and Faye Aspelund

      Article first published online: 17 SEP 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.10862

      Clinical research associates (CRAs) have a unique perspective on patient accrual to cancer clinical trials due to their direct involvement in all phases of the clinical trial process—from initiation of trials to obtaining informed consent—and through their interaction with patients, physicians, pharmaceutical representatives, and nurses. Focus groups with CRAs highlighted the greater impact of system factors, compared with physician factors or patient factors, on the accrual of patients to cancer clinical trials.

      See also pages 1397–400 and 1584–91.

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      Factors that influence the recruitment of patients to Phase III studies in oncology : The perspective of the clinical research associate (pages 1584–1591)

      James R. Wright, Dauna Crooks, Peter M. Ellis, Deborah Mings and Tim J. Whelan

      Article first published online: 17 SEP 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.10864

      Clinical research associates believe they have an important, influential role in the recruitment of patients with cancer to Phase III clinical trials. A greater understanding of all patient, physician, and research associate factors is required to develop supportive strategies to optimize patient accrual.

      See also pages 1397–400 and 1577–83.

    23. Medical Oncology
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      Trastuzumab-associated cardiotoxicity (pages 1592–1600)

      Deborah L. Keefe

      Article first published online: 17 SEP 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.10854

      Trastuzumab has been proven effective in the treatment of women with HER2-overexpressing metastatic breast carcinoma. Although trastuzumab has been associated with cardiotoxicity in a small proportion of patients, particularly when administered with anthracyclines, the majority improve with proper treatment and some patients are able to continue to receive trastuzumab.

    24. Symptom Control and Palliative Care
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      Must patients with advanced cancer choose between a Phase I trial and hospice? (pages 1601–1604)

      David J. Casarett, Jason H. T. Karlawish, Michelle I. Henry and Karen B. Hirschman

      Article first published online: 17 SEP 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.10820

      Hospices and Phase I trial principal investigators are generally willing to allow patients with advanced cancer to enroll concurrently in Phase I trials and hospice.

    25. Translational Research
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      The role of extreme phenotype selection studies in the identification of clinically relevant genotypes in cancer research (pages 1605–1610)

      Jose Luis Perez-Gracia, Maria Gloria Ruiz-Ilundain, Ignacio Garcia-Ribas and Eva Maria Carrasco

      Article first published online: 17 SEP 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.10877

      The investigation of genetic alterations that may be related to the prognosis of patients with malignant disease has become a frequently used strategy in recent years, although it sometimes leads to conflicting results. In contrast, the study of patients or families with very characteristic phenotypes has yielded outstanding results in the identification of the genetic characteristics underlying such phenotypes. This article provides a new point of view on this topic and hypothesizes on new alternatives to maximize the potential benefit of this strategy.

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