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Cancer

Cover image for Cancer

15 October 2002

Volume 95, Issue 8

Pages 1611–1815

  1. Original Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Original Articles
    1. Disease Site

      Endocrine Disease
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      Hyperparathyroidism and subsequent cancer risk in Denmark (pages 1611–1617)

      Amy L. Pickard, Gloria Gridley, Lene Mellemkjæ, Christoffer Johansen, Allan Kofoed-Enevoldsen, Kenneth P. Cantor and Louise A. Brinton

      Article first published online: 3 OCT 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.10846

      The authors investigated the correlation of hyperparathyroidism (HPT) with subsequent cancer risk by conducting a record-linkage study among 2425 patients who were diagnosed with HPT in Danish hospitals. There was evidence of a moderately increased overall risk of cancer among patients with HPT and an association with specific tumor types that was dependent on the type of HPT. This may be important for evaluating the effect of HPT on cancer risk and for determining whether specific endocrinologic alterations associated with HPT may impart an independent effect on the long-term risk of thyroid, urinary tract, and hematopoetic malignancies.

    2. Gastrointestinal Tract
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      Promoting early detection tests for colorectal carcinoma and adenomatous polyps : A framework for action: The strategic plan of the National Colorectal Cancer Roundtable (pages 1618–1628)

      Bernard Levin, Robert A. Smith, Gabriel E. Feldman, Graham A. Colditz, Robert H. Fletcher, Marion Nadel, David A. Rothenberger, Paul S. Schroy III, Sally W. Vernon, Richard Wender and National Colorectal Cancer Roundtable

      Article first published online: 3 OCT 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.10890

      The National Colorectal Cancer Roundtable was founded in 1997 to provide leadership, advocacy, long-term planning, and coordination of interventions aimed at reducing the disease burden of colorectal carcinoma through education, early detection, and prevention. The purpose of this communication is to provide health professionals, professional organizations, and policy makers with a blueprint for increasing the practice of screening for adenomatous polyps and early colorectal carcinoma over the next decade.

    3. Genitourinary Disease
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      A high rate of venous thromboembolism in a multi-institutional Phase II trial of weekly intravenous gemcitabine with continuous infusion fluorouracil and daily thalidomide in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (pages 1629–1636)

      Apurva A. Desai, Nicholas J. Vogelzang, Brian I. Rini, Rafat Ansari, Stuart Krauss and Walter M. Stadler

      Article first published online: 3 OCT 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.10847

      On the basis of their previous experience (17% published objective response rate) with gemcitabine and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC); the previously published, modest, single-agent activity of thalidomide in patients with RCC; and the potential synergism with nonoverlapping toxicities between cytotoxic and antiangiogenic agents, the authors initiated a Phase II trial of gemcitabine, 5-FU, and thalidomide combination therapy for patients with RCC. They observed an inordinately high rate of venous thromboembolism in this study and recommend against its future use in a similar patient population.

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      Prospective analysis of circulating endostatin levels in patients with renal cell carcinoma (pages 1637–1643)

      Andrew L. Feldman, H. Richard Alexander Jr., James C. Yang, W. Marston Linehan, Robin A. Eyler, Marshall S. Miller, Seth M. Steinberg and Steven K. Libutti

      Article first published online: 3 OCT 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.10845

      Circulating endostatin levels are elevated in patients with renal carcinoma and correlate with circulating vascular endothelial growth factor levels. Reduced survival in patients with increased endostatin levels after nephrectomy suggests an association between tumor aggressiveness and the production of endogenous endostatin in patients with renal carcinoma.

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      Interleukin-2, interferon-α, 5-fluorouracil, and vinblastine in the treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma : A prospective Phase II study: The experience of Rambam and Lin Medical Centers 1996-2000 (pages 1644–1649)

      Eliahu Gez, Raphael Rubinov, Diana Gaitini, Shimon Meretyk, Lael-Anson Best, Ofer Native, Avi Stein, Nahum Erlich, Alexander Beny, Jamal Zidan, Nissim Haim and Abraham Kuten

      Article first published online: 3 OCT 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.10842

      Immunochemotherapy was relatively effective in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Those patients who achieved complete remission had durable remission and survival. Resection of residual disease improved the results of immunochemotherapy.

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      Evaluation of HER-2/neu expression in prostatic adenocarcinoma : A request for a standardized, organ specific methodology (pages 1650–1655)

      Katya M. Sanchez, Christopher J. Sweeney, Robert Mass, Michael O. Koch, George J. Eckert, William A. Geary, Lee Ann Baldridge, Shaobo Zhang, John N. Eble and Liang Cheng

      Article first published online: 3 OCT 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.10839

      The authors modified the HercepTest (Dako Corporation, Carpenteria, CA) to evaluate HER-2/neu expression in patients with prostate carcinoma who had biochemical failure after undergoing surgery. They found a significant correlation between HER-2/neu expression and Gleason grade as well as tumor stage. The current findings suggest the need for a standardized, organ specific, and clinically correlated immunohistochemical method for determining HER-2/neu status in patients with prostate carcinoma.

    7. Gynecologic Oncology
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      Efficacy of low-dose topotecan in second-line treatment for patients with epithelial ovarian carcinoma (pages 1656–1662)

      Bo Gronlund, Heine H. Hansen, Claus Høgdall and Svend A. Engelholm

      Article first published online: 3 OCT 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.10838

      The therapeutic index of topotecan may be improved in the second-line treatment of women with ovarian carcinoma with tumors that are resistant to paclitaxel and platinum using a low-dose regimen of 1.0 mg/m2 compared with the standard U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved dose of 1.5 mg/m2 for 5 days every 3 weeks.

    8. Head and Neck Disease
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      A lymph node metastatic mouse model reveals alterations of metastasis-related gene expression in metastatic human oral carcinoma sublines selected from a poorly metastatic parental cell line (pages 1663–1672)

      Xin Zhang, Yanna Liu, Michael Z. Gilcrease, Xiao H. Yuan, Gary L. Clayman, Karen Adler-Storthz and Zhuo Chen

      Article first published online: 3 OCT 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.10837

      In the current study, the authors report the establishment of highly metastatic human oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines from a poorly metastatic parental cell line using a lymph node harvesting technique. Comparison of gene expression between the metastatic and parental cells revealed differential expression of several metastasis-related genes, including up-regulation of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor, integrin β1, membrane type 1-matrix metalloproteinase, and down-regulation of the protease-activated receptor-1, suggesting crucial functions for these cell surface proteins in the metastasis of oral squamous cell carcinoma to lymph nodes.

    9. Hematologic Malignancies
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      Characteristics and outcome of patients with Philadelphia chromosome negative, bcr/abl negative chronic myelogenous leukemia (pages 1673–1684)

      Francesco Onida, Greg Ball, Hagop M. Kantarjian, Terry L. Smith, Armand Glassman, Maher Albitar, Barbara Scappini, Mary Beth Rios, Michael J. Keating and Miloslav Beran

      Article first published online: 3 OCT 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.10832

      A strictly defined population of 76 patients with a diagnosis of Philadelphia chromosome negative, bcr/abl negative chronic myelogenous leukemia with minimal or no prior therapy was analyzed with the intent of investigating clinical and hematologic variables and their association with survival. It was found that older age, anemia, and severe leukocytosis had independent prognostic significance for poor survival, and these variables were used to design a simple prognostic scoring system capable of stratifying patients into low-risk and high-risk groups; such stratification may be helpful for assigning patients to risk-oriented therapeutic strategies.

    10. Hepatobiliary Disease
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      Is postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy useful for gallbladder carcinoma? : A Phase III multicenter prospective randomized controlled trial in patients with resected pancreaticobiliary carcinoma (pages 1685–1695)

      Study Group of Surgical Adjuvant Therapy for Carcinomas of the Pancreas and Biliary Tract, Tadahiro Takada, Hodaka Amano, Hideki Yasuda, Yuji Nimura, Takashi Matsushiro, Hiroyuki Kato, Takukazu Nagakawa and Toshimichi Nakayama

      Article first published online: 3 OCT 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.10831

      A randomized controlled study evaluated the effect of postoperative adjuvant therapy with mitomycin C and 5-fluorouracil versus surgery alone on survival and disease-free survival in patients with resected pancreaticobiliary carcinoma. A total of 508 patients were allocated randomly into either group. Results from this study indicate that gallbladder carcinoma patients who have undergone noncurative resections may derive some benefit from systemic chemotherapy.

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      Role of Rel/NF-κB transcription factors in apoptosis of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (pages 1696–1705)

      Paul J. Chiao, Ren Na, Jiangong Niu, Guido M. Sclabas, Qianggang Dong and Steven A. Curley

      Article first published online: 3 OCT 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.10829

      Rel/NF-κB transcription factors play a role in controlling apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells through activation of downstream target genes. The signaling pathways that regulate Rel/NF-κB activity may be important targets for novel therapeutic approaches in patients with HCC.

    12. Lung Disease
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      Parathyroid hormone-related protein measured at the time of first visit is an indicator of bone metastases and survival in lung carcinoma patients with hypercalcemia (pages 1706–1713)

      Akio Hiraki, Hiroshi Ueoka, Akihiro Bessho, Yoshihiko Segawa, Nagio Takigawa, Katsuyuki Kiura, Kenji Eguchi, Toshiyuki Yoneda, Mitsune Tanimoto and Mine Harada

      Article first published online: 3 OCT 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.10828

      Cancer patients frequently have ectopic hormonal syndromes or paraneoplastic syndromes. Tumor-induced hypercalcemia (TIH) is one of the most common paraneoplastic syndromes and usually occurs at the advanced or terminal stage of disease. Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTH-rP) is believed to be a major cause of TIH and often is found to be elevated in the serum of patients with TIH. In the current study, the authors examined the relation between the measurement of PTH-rP at the time of presentation and the development of bone metastases and survival in patients with lung carcinoma and TIH.

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      A Phase II trial of gemcitabine and docetaxel in patients with chemotherapy-naive, advanced nonsmall cell lung carcinoma (pages 1714–1719)

      Irina E. Popa, Kathleen Stewart, Frederick P. Smith and Naiyer A. Rizvi

      Article first published online: 3 OCT 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.10843

      Lung carcinoma is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the U.S. and worldwide, with 184,600 new patients with lung carcinoma and 157,400 deaths from lung carcinoma expected in the year 2001. It has been well established that cisplatin-based chemotherapy confers an improvement in overall survival compared with best supportive care and is an effective palliative treatment in patients with advanced disease. In the current study, the authors attempted to determine the safety and efficacy of a combination of gemcitabine and docetaxel for the treatment of patients with chemotherapy-naive nonsmall cell lung carcinoma.

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      Real-time tumor-tracking radiation therapy for lung carcinoma by the aid of insertion of a gold marker using bronchofiberscopy (pages 1720–1727)

      Toshiyuki Harada, Hiroki Shirato, Shigeaki Ogura, Satoshi Oizumi, Koichi Yamazaki, Shinichi Shimizu, Rikiya Onimaru, Kazuo Miyasaka, Masaharu Nishimura and Hirotoshi Dosaka-Akita

      Article first published online: 3 OCT 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.10856

      The insertion of a gold marker into or near peripheral-type lung tumors using bronchofiberscopy is a feasible and safe technique. The high dose hypofractionated focal irradiation using the real-time tumor-tracking radiation therapy system can be a good local treatment for peripheral-type lung tumors.

    15. Sarcoma
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      Second malignant neoplasms in long-term survivors of osteosarcoma : Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center experience (pages 1728–1734)

      LeLe Aung, Richard G. Gorlick, Weiji Shi, Howard Thaler, Nicholas A. Shorter, John H. Healey, Andrew G. Huvos and Paul A. Meyers

      Article first published online: 3 OCT 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.10861

      The overall incidence of secondary malignancies in long-term survivors of osteosarcoma was significantly higher than the expected incidence of cancer in the general population. However, the successes of current treatment regimens far outweigh the risks.

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      Inhibition of proliferation in human MNNG/HOS osteosarcoma and SK-ES-1 Ewing sarcoma cell lines in vitro and in vivo by antagonists of growth hormone-releasing hormone : Effects on insulin-like growth factor II (pages 1735–1745)

      Ryszard Braczkowski, Andrew V. Schally, Artur Plonowski, Jozsef L. Varga, Kate Groot, Magdalena Krupa and Patricia Armatis

      Article first published online: 3 OCT 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.10865

      The growth hormone-releasing hormone (GH-RH) antagonist JV-1-38 significantly inhibited the growth of MNNG/HOS osteosarcoma and SK-ES-1 Ewing sarcoma cells in vitro and in vivo in nude mice. The antiproliferative effect of GH-RH antagonist in vivo was associated with a reduction in the production of insulin-like growth factor II in tumor cells.

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      Conventional hemangiopericytoma : Modern analysis of outcome (pages 1746–1751)

      N. Joseph Espat, Jonathan J. Lewis, Denis Leung, James M. Woodruff, Christina R. Antonescu, Jingu Shia and Murray F. Brennan

      Article first published online: 3 OCT 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.10867

      Among vascular tumors, the diagnosis of hemangiopericytoma (HPC) is the most controversial, as HPC shares histologic features with synovial sarcoma and solitary fibrous tumors; in addition, HPC assumes two distinct histologic forms, conventional HPC and the variant benign lipomatous HPC. The current study analyzed outcome for a group of prospectively followed patients with conventional HPC, showing that, although malignant, conventional HPC shows a favorable patient long-term survival.

    18. Discipline

      Epidemiology
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      Cancer among Hispanic women in South Florida: An 18-year assessment : A report from the Florida Cancer Data System (pages 1752–1758)

      James D. Wilkinson, Bradley Wohler-Torres, Edward Trapido, Lora E. Fleming, Jill MacKinnon and Steven Peace

      Article first published online: 3 OCT 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.10834

      The authors report 18 years of incidence and mortality data from Florida's population-based cancer registry for Hispanic women in Miami-Dade County, Florida. Hispanic women continue to have a decreased overall relative risk of cancer compared with non-Hispanic white women.

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      Racial differences in treatment and survival from early-stage breast carcinoma (pages 1759–1766)

      Sue A. Joslyn

      Article first published online: 3 OCT 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.10827

      Among women diagnosed with early-stage breast carcinoma who received breast-conserving surgery, African-American women were significantly less likely to receive follow-up radiation. Whether treatment was equivalent or suboptimal, survival for African-American women with early-stage breast carcinoma was significantly worse.

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      Childhood cancer survival in Europe and the United States (pages 1767–1772)

      Gemma Gatta, Riccardo Capocaccia, Michel P. Coleman, Lynn A. Gloeckler Ries and Franco Berrino

      Article first published online: 3 OCT 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.10833

      Survival for most patients with major childhood cancers and all childhood cancers combined was investigated among populations in the United States and Europe. Unlike adult cancer survival, childhood cancer survival rates in Europe and the United States were similar, suggesting that the major transatlantic survival differences for most adult cancers are not due mainly to bias.

    21. Integrated Medicine
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      Defining sexual outcomes after treatment for localized prostate carcinoma (pages 1773–1785)

      Leslie R. Schover, Rachel T. Fouladi, Carla L. Warneke, Leah Neese, Eric A. Klein, Craig Zippe and Patrick A. Kupelian

      Article first published online: 3 OCT 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.10848

      The great majority of men who survive prostate carcinoma do not achieve satisfying sexual outcomes. Although age, type of treatment, and health-related quality of life account for a significant proportion of the variance in sexual function and satisfaction, placing a high priority on sex and having a sexually functional partner add further explanatory power.

    22. Pediatric Oncology
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      Parental medication use and risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (pages 1786–1794)

      Wanqing Wen, Xiao Ou Shu, John D. Potter, Richard K. Severson, Jonathan D. Buckley, Gregory H. Reaman and Leslie L. Robison

      Article first published online: 3 OCT 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.10859

      Certain parental medication (e.g., vitamins, iron supplements, amphetamines or diet pills, and mind-altering drugs) used immediately before and during the index pregnancy may influence risk of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in offspring.

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      The role of the MDR1 gene in the development of multidrug resistance in human hepatoblastoma : Clinical course and in vivo model (pages 1795–1801)

      Steven Warmann, Mona Hunger, Birgit Teichmann, Peer Flemming, Klaus Friedrich Gratz and Jörg Fuchs

      Article first published online: 3 OCT 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.10858

      The MDR1 gene plays an important role in the development of multidrug resistance in human hepatoblastoma clinically and in an animal model. The chemosensitizer PSC 833 significantly improves the efficiency of cisplatin in the treatment of xenotransplanted hepatoblastoma.

    24. Translational Research
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      Dynamic alterations of the extracellular environment of ovarian surface epithelial cells in premalignant transformation, tumorigenicity, and metastasis (pages 1802–1815)

      Callinice D. Capo-Chichi, Elizabeth R. Smith, Dong-Hua Yang, Isabelle H. Roland, Lisa Vanderveer, Cynthia Cohen, Thomas C. Hamilton, Andrew K. Godwin and Xiang-Xi Xu

      Article first published online: 3 OCT 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.10870

      In our analysis of the extracellular environment of ovarian tumors, we conclude that the extracellular matrix of the tumor cells is dynamically altered and the inability of tumor cells to express collagen IV and laminin may contribute to the abnormal extracellular matrix in ovarian tumors. We propose that loss of collagen IV and laminin may be an initial event in ovarian tumorigenicity and that restoration of collagen IV and laminin expression in later stages of tumor development may promote the metastasis of ovarian tumors.

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