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Cancer

Cover image for Cancer

15 June 2003

Volume 97, Issue 12

Pages 2931–3131

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      Has the investment in public cancer education delivered observable changes in knowledge over the past 10 years? (pages 2931–2939)

      Christine Paul, Flora Tzelepis, Raoul A. Walsh, Afaf Girgis, Lesley King and Jeanie McKenzie

      Version of Record online: 29 MAY 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11393

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      An important indicator of whether public investment in cancer control has been worthwhile is a shift over time in the proportion of the population who have accurate knowledge about cancer. A community survey in Australia indicated that where ongoing investments have been made in public cancer education (eg. for screening of breast cancer), community knowledge of these cancers had clearly increased over a period of ten years. However, knowledge gains regarding other types of cancer remain smaller.

  1. Listen to the Patient

    1. Top of page
    2. Listen to the Patient
    3. Editorial
    4. Original Articles
    5. Original Article
    6. Original Articles
    7. Correspondence
    8. Errata
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      Coping and caring (page 2940)

      Mary L. R. Hanson

      Version of Record online: 29 MAY 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11431

  2. Editorial

    1. Top of page
    2. Listen to the Patient
    3. Editorial
    4. Original Articles
    5. Original Article
    6. Original Articles
    7. Correspondence
    8. Errata
    1. Editorial
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      Seeking the solution to the problem of metastatic renal carcinoma (pages 2941–2944)

      Paul Russo

      Version of Record online: 29 MAY 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11439

      It is estimated there will be 31,900 new cases and 11,900 deaths from renal carcinoma in the U.S. in 2003. Since 1950 there has been a 126% increase reported in the incidence of renal carcinoma and a 36.5% increase in annual mortality. In the last 20 years, our understanding of tumors arising from the renal cortex has dramatically expanded because of advances in cytogenetics and histopathologic reclassification, improved abdominal imaging technology leading to a tumor stage migration, and changing surgical strategies. Despite these advances, our efforts to treat metastatic renal carcinoma either with systemic therapies or surgical intervention have been frustrated. In the article by Pantuck et al. in this issue of Cancer, the authors identify the adverse prognostic impact of metastatic regional lymph nodes in patients with metastatic disease when compared with patients with metastatic disease alone.

      See also pages 2995–3002.

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      Sentinel lymph nodes : What have we learned and where will it lead us? (pages 2945–2947)

      Allan Covens

      Version of Record online: 29 MAY 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11438

      The author discusses an article in the current issue of Cancer that describes a laparoscopic detection method for identifying sentinel lymph nodes in women with cervical carcinoma using patent blue and radioisotope technology. The advantages and disadvantages are articulated. The possible future role of sentinel lymph node biopsy in patients with cervical carcinoma is discussed.

      See also pages 3003–9.

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      Hepatic steatosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection : Another risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma? (pages 2948–2950)

      Andrew X. Zhu and Raymond T. Chung

      Version of Record online: 29 MAY 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11440

      The authors discuss a report by Ohata et al. in this issue of Cancer indicating that hepatic steatosis represents an independent risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. The importance of demonstrating that steatosis is a critical step in the hepatocarcinogenesis pathway is emphasized along with the necessity of defining the relation between steatosis, HCV, and fibrosis to clarify the individual contributions of these potentially carcinogenic factors.

      See also pages 3036–43.

  3. Original Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Listen to the Patient
    3. Editorial
    4. Original Articles
    5. Original Article
    6. Original Articles
    7. Correspondence
    8. Errata
    1. Disease Site

      Breast Disease
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      A simple model of breast carcinoma growth may provide explanations for observations of apparently complex phenomena (pages 2951–2959)

      Daniel B. Kopans, Elizabeth Rafferty, Diane Georgian-Smith, Eren Yeh, Helen D'Alessandro, Richard Moore, Kevin Hughes and Elkan Halpern

      Version of Record online: 29 MAY 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11434

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      The authors present a breast carcinoma growth model that they used to investigate issues regarding the importance of ductal carcinoma in situ versus invasive breast disease, detection rates and undetected breast tumors in the general population, tumor growth rates, and why invasive breast carcinoma may grow more rapidly among very young women and more slowly among elderly women.

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      Total RNA yield and microarray gene expression profiles from fine-needle aspiration biopsy and core-needle biopsy samples of breast carcinoma (pages 2960–2971)

      W. Fraser Symmans, Mark Ayers, Edwin A. Clark, James Stec, Kenneth R. Hess, Nour Sneige, Thomas A. Buchholz, Savitri Krishnamurthy, Nuhad K. Ibrahim, Aman U. Buzdar, Richard L. Theriault, Marguerite F.M. Rosales, Eva S. Thomas, Karin M. Gwyn, Marjorie C. Green, Abdul R. Syed, Gabriel N. Hortobagyi and Lajos Pusztai

      Version of Record online: 29 MAY 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11435

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      Fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) and core needle biopsy (CBX) provide equivalent RNA yield for genomic studies. Transcriptional profiles from FNABs more purely represent tumor cells, whereas profiles from CBXs contain additional transcriptional information from stromal cells.

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      Central nervous system metastases in women who receive trastuzumab-based therapy for metastatic breast carcinoma (pages 2972–2977)

      Johanna C. Bendell, Susan M. Domchek, Harold J. Burstein, Lyndsay Harris, Jerry Younger, Irene Kuter, Craig Bunnell, Montse Rue, Rebecca Gelman and Eric Winer

      Version of Record online: 29 MAY 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11436

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      Women with HER-2 overexpressing metastatic breast carcinoma benefit from trastuzumab-based therapy, but trastuzumab does not cross the blood-brain barrier. Metastases to the central nervous system (CNS) are common among patients receiving trastuzumab-based therapy, including patients responding to therapy outside the CNS.

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      Elevated expression of cyclooxygenase-2 is a negative prognostic factor for disease free survival and overall survival in patients with breast carcinoma (pages 2978–2987)

      Carsten Denkert, Klaus-Jürgen Winzer, Berit-Maria Müller, Wilko Weichert, Sören Pest, Martin Köbel, Glen Kristiansen, Angela Reles, Antje Siegert, Hans Guski and Steffen Hauptmann

      Version of Record online: 29 MAY 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11437

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      The authors evaluated the prognostic impact of expression of cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and COX-2 in a cohort of 221 patients with breast carcinoma. The most important result of the study was that COX-2, but not COX-1, was associated significantly with reduced disease-free survival and overall survival.

    5. Genitourinary Disease
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      A Phase I/II study of strontium-89 combined with gemcitabine in the treatment of patients with androgen independent prostate carcinoma and bone metastases (pages 2988–2994)

      Lance C. Pagliaro, Ebrahim S. Delpassand, Dallas Williams, Randall E. Millikan, Shi-Ming Tu and Christopher J. Logothetis

      Version of Record online: 29 MAY 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11412

      Gemcitabine at 800 mg/m2 was the maximum tolerated dose when administered on a weekly schedule with a 55-μCi/kg dose of strontium-89 to patients with androgen independent prostate carcinoma in the current study. There were no responses, as measured by prostate specific antigen, but clinical improvements specific to bone were observed in approximately half of the 15 men studied.

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      Renal cell carcinoma with retroperitoneal lymph nodes : Impact on survival and benefits of immunotherapy (pages 2995–3002)

      Allan J. Pantuck, Amnon Zisman, Frederich Dorey, Debby H. Chao, Ken-ryu Han, Jonathan Said, Barbara Gitlitz, Arie S. Belldegrun and Robert A. Figlin

      Version of Record online: 29 MAY 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11422

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      The presence of regional lymphadenopathy exerts a detrimental effect on the survival of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Lymph node status is a strong predictor of failure to achieve either an objective immunotherapy response or an improvement in survival when immunotherapy is given as an adjunctive treatment after cytoreductive nephrectomy.

      See also pages 2941–4.

    7. Gynecologic Oncology
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      Laparoscopic sentinel lymph node procedure using a combination of patent blue and radioisotope in women with cervical carcinoma (pages 3003–3009)

      Emmanuel Barranger, Dany Grahek, Annie Cortez, Jean Noel Talbot, Serge Uzan and Emile Darai

      Version of Record online: 29 MAY 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11423

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      The authors demonstrated the feasibility of a laparoscopic sentinel lymph node procedure based on combined detection with patent blue and radiocolloid in patients with carcinoma of the uterine cervix.

      See also pages 2945–7.

    8. Hematologic Malignancies
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      Treatment of Philadelphia chromosome–positive chronic myelogenous leukemia with weekly polyethylene glycol formulation of interferon-alpha-2b and low-dose cytosine arabinoside (pages 3010–3016)

      Guillermo Garcia-Manero, Moshe Talpaz, Francis J. Giles, Jorge Cortes, Stefan Faderl, Susan O'Brien, Deborah Thomas, Srdan Verstovsek, Mary Beth Rios, Jianquin Shan, Alessandra Ferrajoli, William Wierda and Hagop M. Kantarjian

      Version of Record online: 29 MAY 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11424

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      The combination of weekly polyethylene glycol formulation of interferon-α-2b (PEG-IFN; Schering 54301) and daily low-dose cytosine arabinoside was studied in a Phase II study of patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia. Results indicate that the activity of this combination is similar to that of nonpegylated interferon, albeit at lower doses of PEG-IFN (3 μg/kg vs. 7.5 μg/kg) than predicted in the original Phase I studies. These results are important for the development of future combination studies including imatinib mesylate.

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      Involvement of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade in hepatocellular carcinoma (pages 3017–3026)

      Kenya Iyoda, Yutaka Sasaki, Masayoshi Horimoto, Takashi Toyama, Takayuki Yakushijin, Mitsuru Sakakibara, Tetsuo Takehara, Jiro Fujimoto, Masatsugu Hori, Jack R. Wands and Norio Hayashi

      Version of Record online: 29 MAY 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11425

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      p38 MAPK and MKK6 activation induced apoptosis in hepatoma cells and the activities of these kinases were reduced in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissue specimens. These findings suggest that diminished p38 MAPK and MKK6 activities lead to reduced cell death, contributing to the unrestricted cell growth of HCCs.

    10. Hepatobiliary Disease
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      Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation of liver metastases in potential candidates for resection : The “test-of-time” approach (pages 3027–3035)

      Tito Livraghi, Luigi Solbiati, Franca Meloni, Tiziana Ierace, S. Nahum Goldberg and G. Scott Gazelle

      Version of Record online: 29 MAY 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11426

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      Some surgeons have advocated delaying resection of liver metastases to allow additional metastases which may be present, but are undetected, to be identified. This “test-of-time” approach can help to limit the number of resections performed on patients who ultimately will develop additional metastases. Current radiofrequency ablation techniques, when used as part of a test-of-time management approach, can decrease the number of resections performed. They result in complete tumor necrosis in some patients and provide an interval for others who will develop new intrahepatic and/or extrahepatic metastases to do so.

  4. Original Article

    1. Top of page
    2. Listen to the Patient
    3. Editorial
    4. Original Articles
    5. Original Article
    6. Original Articles
    7. Correspondence
    8. Errata
    1. Disease Site

      Hepatobiliary Disease
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      Hepatic steatosis is a risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection (pages 3036–3043)

      Kazuyuki Ohata, Keisuke Hamasaki, Kan Toriyama, Kojiro Matsumoto, Akira Saeki, Kenji Yanagi, Seigou Abiru, Yuichi Nakagawa, Masaya Shigeno, Seiji Miyazoe, Tatsuki Ichikawa, Hiroki Ishikawa, Kazuhiko Nakao and Katsumi Eguchi

      Version of Record online: 29 MAY 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11427

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      The authors studied the influence of various factors in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) to determine the correlation between hepatic steatosis and hepatocarcinogenesis in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection. See also pages 2948–50.

  5. Original Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Listen to the Patient
    3. Editorial
    4. Original Articles
    5. Original Article
    6. Original Articles
    7. Correspondence
    8. Errata
    1. Disease Site

      Lung Disease
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      Plasma levels of D-dimer in lung carcinoma : Clinical and prognostic significance (pages 3044–3052)

      Gianfranco Buccheri, Pierfederico Torchio and Domenico Ferrigno

      Version of Record online: 29 MAY 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11432

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      The activation of the clotting-fibrinolytic system in cancer patients is common and represents an unfavorable clinical sign. D-dimer (DD) is a sensitive marker of fibrinolysis. The authors recommend measuring the plasma level of DD in all new lung carcinoma patients. The measurement formulated individual prognosis and could be used to recommend adjuvant treatment for surgical patients.

    2. Neuro-Oncology
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      Quality-of-life–adjusted survival comparison of sustained-release cytosine arabinoside versus intrathecal methotrexate for treatment of solid tumor neoplastic meningitis (pages 3053–3060)

      Bernard F. Cole, Michael J. Glantz, Kurt A. Jaeckle, Marc C. Chamberlain and John I. Mackowiak

      Version of Record online: 29 MAY 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11449

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      The authors used quality-adjusted time without symptoms or toxicity methodology to compare the quality of life of patients with solid tumor neoplastic meningitis randomized to treatment with either methotrexate or a depot cytosine arabinoside liposome injection (DepoCyt). After 12 months of follow-up, the DepoCyt patients achieved 45–79 more days of quality-adjusted survival.

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      Nuclear accumulation of basic fibroblast growth factor in human astrocytic tumors : A poor prognostic factor (pages 3061–3067)

      Shinji Fukui, Hiroshi Nawashiro, Naoki Otani, Hidetoshi Ooigawa, Namiko Nomura, Akiko Yano, Takahito Miyazawa, Akira Ohnuki, Nobusuke Tsuzuki, Hiroshi Katoh, Shoichiro Ishihara and Katsuji Shima

      Version of Record online: 29 MAY 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11450

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      The authors retrospectively studied 52 patients with primary astrocytic tumors to assess the subcellular localization of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) using immunohistochemistry. The results suggest that nuclear accumulation of bFGF may be a useful predictor of survival in patients with astrocytic tumors.

    4. Sarcoma
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      Neoadjuvant chemotherapy for high-grade central osteosarcoma of the extremity : Histologic response to preoperative chemotherapy correlates with histologic subtype of the tumor (pages 3068–3075)

      Gaetano Bacci, Franco Bertoni, Alessandra Longhi, Stefano Ferrari, Cristiana Forni, Roberto Biagini, Patrizia Bacchini, Davide Donati, Marco Manfrini, Gabriella Bernini and Stefano Lari

      Version of Record online: 29 MAY 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11456

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      The histologic subtype of primary central high-grade osteosarcoma of the extremity is strictly correlated with histologic response to chemotherapy and with prognosis. Consequently, a specific therapeutic approach based on the histologic subtype of the tumor may be indicated.

    5. Discipline

      Epidemiology
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      Cancer in the Minnesota Hmong population (pages 3076–3079)

      Julie A. Ross, Yang Xie, William R. Kiffmeyer, Sally Bushhouse and Leslie L. Robison

      Version of Record online: 29 MAY 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11443

      Cancer incidence was examined in the Minnesota Hmong population. Selected malignancies, including cancers of the nasopharynx and the uterine cervix, were notably higher in the Hmong compared with all Minnesotans, indicating important areas for targeted surveillance and intervention.

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      Cancer incidence in the U.S. radiologic technologists health study, 1983–1998 (pages 3080–3089)

      Alice J. Sigurdson, Michele Morin Doody, R. Sowmya Rao, D. Michal Freedman, Bruce H. Alexander, Michael Hauptmann, Aparna K. Mohan, Shinji Yoshinaga, Deirdre A. Hill, Robert Tarone, Kiyohiko Mabuchi, Elaine Ron and Martha S. Linet

      Version of Record online: 29 MAY 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11444

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      In a nationwide cohort of largely female radiologic technologists with occupational radiation exposure, the authors found elevated risks for breast, melanoma, and thyroid cancer and decreased risks for lung, rectal, and buccal cavity cancer. The increased risk for breast cancer likely was related to radiation exposure, whereas the elevated occurrence of melanoma and thyroid cancer may be related in part to early detection in a population with easy access to health care.

    7. Medical Oncology
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      Addition of the neurokinin 1 receptor antagonist aprepitant to standard antiemetic therapy improves control of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting : Results from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in Latin America (pages 3090–3098)

      Sergio Poli-Bigelli, Jose Rodrigues-Pereira, Alexandra D. Carides, Guoguang Julie Ma, Krista Eldridge, Anita Hipple, Judith K. Evans, Kevin J. Horgan, Francesca Lawson and On behalf of the Aprepitant Protocol 054 Study Group

      Version of Record online: 29 MAY 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11433

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      A large Phase III randomized trial was conducted to confirm the results of earlier studies, which suggested that the addition of aprepitant to standard dual therapy with a 5-hydroxytriptamine-3 antagonist and a corticosteroid would enhance protection against chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). Compared with standard dual therapy, the addition of aprepitant was generally well tolerated and provided consistently superior protection against CINV in patients who were receiving highly emetogenic chemotherapy.

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      Pharmacoeconomic analysis of oprelvekin (recombinant human interleukin-11) for secondary prophylaxis of thrombocytopenia in solid tumor patients receiving chemotherapy (pages 3099–3106)

      Scott B. Cantor, Linda S. Elting, David V. Hudson Jr. and Edward B Rubenstein

      Version of Record online: 29 MAY 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11447

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      On the basis of cost minimization from the payer's perspective, oprelvekin administration cannot be considered a cost-saving clinical strategy compared with routine platelet transfusions for patients with severe chemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia.

    9. Pediatric Oncology
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      Hepatic focal nodular hyperplasia in children previously treated for a solid tumor : Incidence, risk factors, and outcome (pages 3107–3113)

      Celine Icher-De Bouyn, Jerome Leclere, Graziella Raimondo, Hubert Ducou le Pointe, Dominique Couanet, Dominique Valteau-Couanet and Olivier Hartmann

      Version of Record online: 29 MAY 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11452

      The current retrospective study describes 14 cases of focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) in pediatric patients who previously had been treated for a malignancy. The incidence of FNH was particularly high in the current series (0.45%) compared with the incidence in the general pediatric population. FNH appears to be a late complication of an iatrogenic vascular disease in children with a history of malignancy.

    10. Radiation Oncology
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      Measurement of serum squamous cell carcinoma antigen levels as a predictor of radiation response in patients with carcinoma of the uterine cervix (pages 3114–3120)

      Tatsuya Ohno, Yuko Nakayama, Soken Nakamoto, Shingo Kato, Reiko Imai, Tetsuo Nonaka, Hitoshi Ishikawa, Koichi Harashima and Yoshihiko Suzuki

      Version of Record online: 29 MAY 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11453

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      The serum squamous cell carcinoma antigen level can predict the response of uterine cervical carcinoma, not only before, but also at 4 weeks and at the end of radiation therapy. It also may be useful for identifying patients who are at high risk of local recurrence and/or distant metastasis.

    11. Symptom Control and Palliative Care
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      A safe and effective method for converting patients from transdermal to intravenous fentanyl for the treatment of acute cancer-related pain (pages 3121–3124)

      Craig A. Kornick, Juan Santiago-Palma, Glenn Schulman, Peter C. O'Brien, Stephen Weigand, Richard Payne and Paolo L. Manfredi

      Version of Record online: 29 MAY 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11457

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      The conversion from transdermal to intravenous (IV) fentanyl can be accomplished safely and effectively using a 1:1 (transdermal:IV) conversion during acute exacerbations of cancer pain.

  6. Correspondence

    1. Top of page
    2. Listen to the Patient
    3. Editorial
    4. Original Articles
    5. Original Article
    6. Original Articles
    7. Correspondence
    8. Errata
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      Author reply (pages 3126–3127)

      John Glaspy

      Version of Record online: 29 MAY 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11454

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      Author reply (page 3129)

      Tatsuo Akechi, Hitoshi Okamura, Yutaka Nishiwaki and Yosuke Uchitomi

      Version of Record online: 29 MAY 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11455

  7. Errata

    1. Top of page
    2. Listen to the Patient
    3. Editorial
    4. Original Articles
    5. Original Article
    6. Original Articles
    7. Correspondence
    8. Errata
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