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Cancer

Cover image for Cancer

15 November 2003

Volume 98, Issue 10

Pages 2083–2305

  1. Editorial

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorial
    3. Review Articles
    4. Original Articles
    5. Original Article
    6. Original Articles
    7. Original Article
    8. Original Articles
    9. Original Article
    10. Original Articles
    11. Correspondence
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      Occult “micrometastases” in ductal carcinoma in situ : Investigative implications for sentinel lymph node biopsy. (pages 2083–2087)

      Donald L. Weaver

      Article first published online: 1 OCT 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11762

      Sentinel lymph node biopsy is frequently associated with identification of micrometastatic tumor deposits. The clinical relevance of identifying micrometastases in breast cancer must be evaluated in the statistical context of the lymph node evaluation strategy and the likelihood of missing a metastasis of similar size.

      See also pages 2105–13.

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      Combination chemotherapy for hormone-refractory prostate carcinoma : Progress and pitfalls (pages 2088–2090)

      Samira Syed

      Article first published online: 7 OCT 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11788

      Although there has been progress in the development of chemotherapy combinations with enhanced activity in patients with hormone-refractory prostate carcinoma, the innate lack of selectivity to tumor cells with those combinations has resulted in diminishing returns and has approached the limits of acceptable toxicity. However, progress is being made, and several promising new therapies offer the dual hopes of maximizing efficacy with minimal toxicity to normal tissues.

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      The silence of the genes: Matching mismatch repair defects with tumors (pages 2091–2094)

      C. Richard Boland and Ajay Goel

      Article first published online: 25 SEP 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11769

      Research over the past 20 years has shown that all cancers are diseases of genes. However, the genetic pathways to tumor development are complex and variable. Much of the work in the past decade has been to identify the pathways of development for tumors in individual organs, and to translate these findings into improved methods for the prevention and treatment of malignancies. In this issue of Cancer, Geisler et al. report the role of epigenetic silencing of the hMLH1 and hMSH2 genes in the genesis of ovarian carcinoma

  2. Review Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorial
    3. Review Articles
    4. Original Articles
    5. Original Article
    6. Original Articles
    7. Original Article
    8. Original Articles
    9. Original Article
    10. Original Articles
    11. Correspondence
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      Gemtuzumab ozogamicin in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (pages 2095–2104)

      Francis Giles, Elihu Estey and Susan O'Brien

      Article first published online: 7 OCT 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11791

      Gemtuzumab ozogamicin (GO) is a chemotherapeutic agent that has received conditional approval as single-agent therapy for a subset of older patients with first relapse of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The authors present data from studies in AML with GO-based regimens, including some promising combination regimen results and some challenges in the development of GO, particularly its association with hepatic venoocclusive disease.

  3. Original Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorial
    3. Review Articles
    4. Original Articles
    5. Original Article
    6. Original Articles
    7. Original Article
    8. Original Articles
    9. Original Article
    10. Original Articles
    11. Correspondence
    1. Disease Site

      Breast Disease
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      The relevance of occult axillary micrometastasis in ductal carcinoma in situ : A clinicopathologic study with long-term follow-up (pages 2105–2113)

      Jonathan F. Lara, Steven M. Young, Rowena E. Velilla, Elissa J. Santoro and Sandra F. Templeton

      Article first published online: 29 SEP 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11761

      A long-term study of micrometastasis in ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) indicated that there is no appreciable significance for micrometastasis in patients with DCIS detected by immunohistochemistry. Therefore, there is little or no clinical benefit to extensive lymph node evaluation in patients with true and confirmed DCIS only.

      See pages 2083–7, this issue.

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      Gauging the impact of breast carcinoma screening in terms of tumor size and death rate (pages 2114–2124)

      James S. Michaelson, Sameer Satija, Daniel Kopans, Richard Moore, Melvin Silverstein, Arthur Comegno, Kevin Hughes, Alphonse Taghian, Simon Powell and Barbara Smith

      Article first published online: 15 OCT 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11766

      Prompt attendance at annual mammographic screening offered the potential to reduce tumor size, and thus presumably breast carcinoma death, in women of all ages and density groups.

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      Vascular endothelial growth factor is associated with the efficacy of endocrine therapy in patients with advanced breast carcinoma (pages 2125–2132)

      Peggy Manders, Louk V. A. M. Beex, Vivianne C. G. Tjan-Heijnen, Paul N. Span and C. (Fred) G. J. Sweep

      Article first published online: 30 SEP 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11764

      Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has proven prognostic value in patients with primary breast carcinoma in the absence of adjuvant systemic therapy. In the current study, the authors found that tumor levels of VEGF predicted the rate of response to first-line endocrine therapy but not the rate of response to first-line chemotherapy.

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      The effect of tumor size and lymph node status on breast carcinoma lethality (pages 2133–2143)

      James S. Michaelson, Melvin Silverstein, Dennis Sgroi, Justin A. Cheongsiatmoy, Alphonse Taghian, Simon Powell, Kevin Hughes, Arthur Comegno, Kenneth K. Tanabe and Barbara Smith

      Article first published online: 15 OCT 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11765

      The authors have developed a mathematical model for accurately estimating a patient's risk of death due to invasive breast carcinoma using information on primary tumor size and the number of positive lymph nodes. As a rough approximation, each millimeter of tumor diameter adds approximately 1% to a patient's risk of death and each positive lymph node adds approximately 6%. This method also was used to group women according to breast carcinoma lethality. In contrast, classification of women according to lymph node positivity, T status, or disease stage generated groups with broad, overlapping lethality levels.

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      Prognosis after regional lymph node recurrence in patients with Stage I–II breast carcinoma treated with breast conservation therapy (pages 2144–2151)

      Eleanor E. R. Harris, Wei-Ting Hwang, Farshad Seyednejad and Lawrence J. Solin

      Article first published online: 7 OCT 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11767

      Regional lymph node recurrences were reported to occur in 3% of women with Stage I–II breast carcinoma who underwent breast conservation therapy. The axillary lymph nodes were the most favorable site among all long-term survivors.

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      Reoperations after prophylactic mastectomy with or without implant reconstruction (pages 2152–2160)

      Sara M. Zion, Jeffrey M. Slezak, Thomas A. Sellers, John E. Woods, Phillip G. Arnold, Paul M. Petty, John H. Donohue, Marlene H. Frost, Daniel J. Schaid and Lynn C. Hartmann

      Article first published online: 8 OCT 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11757

      Surgical reoperations were fairly common among women who received prophylactic mastectomy with implant reconstruction. Most of the reoperations were implant related.

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      Lifetime recreational exercise activity and risk of breast carcinoma in situ (pages 2161–2169)

      Alpa V. Patel, Michael F. Press, Kathleen Meeske, Eugenia E. Calle and Leslie Bernstein

      Article first published online: 6 OCT 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11768

      The findings of the current study suggest that exercise activity may modify risk of breast carcinoma in situ (BCIS), particularly the risk among women without a family history of breast carcinoma. However, further studies of BCIS are needed to understand the role of physical activity independently of its relationship to screening practices.

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      Ductal lavage in patients undergoing mastectomy for mammary carcinoma : A correlative study (pages 2170–2176)

      Edi Brogi, Mark Robson, Katherine S. Panageas, Chiara Casadio, Britt-Marie Ljung and Leslie Montgomery

      Article first published online: 6 OCT 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11758

      Ductal lavage (DL) was performed in the affected breasts of women undergoing mastectomy for mammary carcinoma. Findings in DL samples were correlated with the features of carcinoma in situ (CIS) in the mastectomy specimens. DL exhibited low sensitivity in the detection of CIS, and use of this technique in the evaluation of patients at risk for breast carcinoma remains investigational.

  4. Original Article

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorial
    3. Review Articles
    4. Original Articles
    5. Original Article
    6. Original Articles
    7. Original Article
    8. Original Articles
    9. Original Article
    10. Original Articles
    11. Correspondence
    1. Disease Site

      Gastrointestinal Tract
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      Concurrent cisplatin, paclitaxel, and radiotherapy as preoperative treatment for patients with locoregional esophageal carcinoma (pages 2177–2183)

      Susan G. Urba, Mark B. Orringer, Mark Ianettonni, James A. Hayman and Hayasaka Satoru

      Article first published online: 1 OCT 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11759

      Sixty-nine patients with locoregional esophageal carcinoma were treated with cisplatin, paclitaxel, and radiation followed by transhiatal esophagectomy. Median survival was 24 months and 1- and 2-year survival probabilities were 75% and 50%, respectively. These survival data compared favorably with other previously reported combinations, representing a reasonable preoperative approach for patients with this disease.

  5. Original Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorial
    3. Review Articles
    4. Original Articles
    5. Original Article
    6. Original Articles
    7. Original Article
    8. Original Articles
    9. Original Article
    10. Original Articles
    11. Correspondence
    1. Disease Site

      Gastrointestinal Tract
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      Decreased abundance of trefoil factor 1 transcript in the majority of gastric carcinomas (pages 2184–2191)

      Andrew D. Beckler, James K. Roche, Jeffrey C. Harper, Gina Petroni, Henry F. Frierson Jr., Christopher A. Moskaluk, Wa'el El-Rifai and Steven M. Powell

      Article first published online: 8 OCT 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11789

      A significant decrease in the trefoil factor 1 (TFF1) transcript in the majority of human gastric carcinomas was observed along with a corresponding reduction in protein expression, both of which occurred in the absence of gene mutation. Dysregulation of TFF1 expression at the transcript level was a critical event in the development of most gastric carcinomas.

    2. Genitourinary Disease
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      Weekly paclitaxel, estramustine phosphate, and oral etoposide in the treatment of hormone-refractory prostate carcinoma : Results of a Minnie Pearl Cancer Research Network Phase II Trial (pages 2192–2198)

      Anthony A. Meluch, F. Anthony Greco, Lisa H. Morrissey, Eric L. Raefsky, Ronald G. Steis, James A. Butts and John D. Hainsworth

      Article first published online: 8 OCT 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11790

      The authors evaluated the efficacy and toxicity of weekly paclitaxel, oral etoposide, and estramustine phosphate in the treatment of patients with hormone-refractory prostate carcinoma. The results did not appear to be better than the results achieved with less toxic taxane/estramustine phosphate combinations. Further development of this three-drug regimen is not recommended.

      See also pages 2088–90.

  6. Original Article

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorial
    3. Review Articles
    4. Original Articles
    5. Original Article
    6. Original Articles
    7. Original Article
    8. Original Articles
    9. Original Article
    10. Original Articles
    11. Correspondence
    1. Disease Site

      Gynecologic Oncology
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      Mismatch repair gene expression defects contribute to microsatellite instability in ovarian carcinoma (pages 2199–2206)

      John P. Geisler, Michael J. Goodheart, Anil K. Sood, Richard J. Holmes, Melanie A. Hatterman-Zogg and Richard E. Buller

      Article first published online: 25 SEP 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11770

      A molecular mechanism that the authors believe explains greater than 50% of ovarian carcinoma cases with high frequency microsatellite instability is discussed in the current study.

      See also pages 2091–4.

  7. Original Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorial
    3. Review Articles
    4. Original Articles
    5. Original Article
    6. Original Articles
    7. Original Article
    8. Original Articles
    9. Original Article
    10. Original Articles
    11. Correspondence
    1. Disease Site

      Gynecologic Oncology
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      Expression of steroid receptor coactivators and corepressors in human endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma with relevance to steroid receptors and Ki-67 expression (pages 2207–2213)

      Junko Uchikawa, Tanri Shiozawa, Hsien-Chang Shih, Tsutomu Miyamoto, Yu-Zhen Feng, Hiroyasu Kashima, Kenji Oka and Ikuo Konishi

      Article first published online: 8 OCT 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11760

      The authors examined the steroid hormone dependent growth mechanism of human endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma by studying expression levels of steroid receptor cofactors and corepressors. Although a subset of endometrial carcinoma specimens expressed estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and steroid receptor coactivators, there was no correlation between the expression of ER/PR and the expression of coactivators, which may explain the limited response to sex steroids in patients with ER/PR positive endometrial carcinoma.

    2. Head and Neck Disease
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      Intraarterial cisplatin with intravenous paclitaxel and ifosfamide as an organ-preservation approach in patients with paranasal sinus carcinoma (pages 2214–2223)

      Vassiliki A. Papadimitrakopoulou, Lawrence E. Ginsberg, Adam S. Garden, Merrill S. Kies, Bonnie S. Glisson, Eduardo M. Diaz Jr., Gary Clayman, William H. Morrison, Diane D. Liu, George Blumenschein Jr., Scott M. Lippman, Donald Schommer, Ann Gillenwater, Helmuth Goepfert and Waun K. Hong

      Article first published online: 29 SEP 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11771

      Intraarterial cisplatin combined with intravenous paclitaxel and ifosfamide was studied as an organ-preservation approach for patients with paranasal sinus carcinoma. Although the orbit preservation rate was high (88%), central nervous system toxicity was substantial.

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      Definitive radiotherapy alone or combined with a planned neck dissection for squamous cell carcinoma of the pharyngeal wall (pages 2224–2231)

      Matthew C. Hull, Christopher G. Morris, Scott P. Tannehill, John W. Werning, Robert J. Amdur, Russell W. Hinerman, Douglas B. Villaret and William M. Mendenhall

      Article first published online: 30 SEP 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11772

      Locoregional control and survival are related to the site of disease, the extent of disease, and the fractionation schedule. Although outcomes have improved in recent years, the morbidity of treatment in the current study was found to be significant and a substantial proportion of patients died secondary to the malignancy.

    4. Neuro-Oncology
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      Clear cell ependymoma: A clinicopathologic and radiographic analysis of 10 patients (pages 2232–2244)

      Maryam Fouladi, Kathleen Helton, James Dalton, Elizabeth Gilger, Amar Gajjar, Thomas Merchant, Larry Kun, Irene Newsham, Peter Burger and Christine Fuller

      Article first published online: 29 SEP 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11783

      The authors report on the clinicopathologic and radiologic features, treatment, and outcome of 10 children with clear cell ependymoma (CCE). The report demonstrates the preponderance of CCE for early recurrence, anaplastic histologic features, chromosome 18 losses, and extraneural metastases and describes the characteristic radiographic features of CCE.

  8. Original Article

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorial
    3. Review Articles
    4. Original Articles
    5. Original Article
    6. Original Articles
    7. Original Article
    8. Original Articles
    9. Original Article
    10. Original Articles
    11. Correspondence
    1. Disease Site

      Sarcoma
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      Single nucleotide polymorphism in fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 at codon 388 is associated with prognosis in high-grade soft tissue sarcoma (pages 2245–2250)

      Yuki Morimoto, Toshifumi Ozaki, Mamoru Ouchida, Norifumi Umehara, Norihide Ohata, Aki Yoshida, Kenji Shimizu and Hajime Inoue

      Article first published online: 25 SEP 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11778

      Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at codon 388 of fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 was found to be correlated with overall and metastasis-free survival in patients with soft tissue sarcoma. This SNP may be useful for the prediction and improvement of prognosis in patients with soft tissue sarcoma.

  9. Original Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorial
    3. Review Articles
    4. Original Articles
    5. Original Article
    6. Original Articles
    7. Original Article
    8. Original Articles
    9. Original Article
    10. Original Articles
    11. Correspondence
    1. Disease Site

      Sarcoma
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      Antiangiogenetic therapy with pioglitazone, rofecoxib, and metronomic trofosfamide in patients with advanced malignant vascular tumors (pages 2251–2256)

      Thomas Vogt, Christian Hafner, Klaus Bross, Frauke Bataille, Karl-Walter Jauch, Anna Berand, Michael Landthaler, Reinhard Andreesen and Albrecht Reichle

      Article first published online: 29 SEP 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11775

      In a pilot study, a combination of pioglitazone (45 mg per day orally) plus rofecoxib (25 mg per day orally) with daily low-dose trofosfamide (3 × 50 mg per day orally) was administered continuously to patients with advanced and pretreated malignant vascular tumors. The response rate was 50% (complete and partial remissions), the median progression-free survival was 7.7 months (range, 2–15 months), and the side effects generally were mild (World Health Organization Grade 1–2).

    2. Discipline

      Diagnostic Imaging
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      Detection of recurrent oral squamous cell carcinoma by [18F]-2-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography : Implications for prognosis and patient management (pages 2257–2265)

      Martin Kunkel, Gregor J. Förster, Torsten E. Reichert, Jong-Hyeon Jeong, Peter Benz, Peter Bartenstein, Wilfried Wagner and Theresa L. Whiteside

      Article first published online: 15 OCT 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11763

      Positron emission tomography was found to be highly valuable for diagnosing oral squamous cell carcinoma recurrence in a postoperative setting. It provided prognostic information and played an important role in patient counseling and management.

    3. Outcomes
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      The surgical treatment of cancer : A comparison of resource utilization following procedures performed with curative and palliative intent (pages 2266–2273)

      Carey A. Cullinane, Tami Borneman, David D. Smith, David Z. J. Chu, Betty R. Ferrell and Lawrence D. Wagman

      Article first published online: 30 SEP 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11777

      The current study used clinical resource utilization as a measure of cost associated with surgical care. Overall resource use was similar among 302 patients undergoing surgical procedures with curative or palliative intent. However, the nature of the interactions between the patients and the cancer center was distinctly different, suggesting that patients who underwent surgery with palliative intent did not utilize more resources. Resource utilization in concert with quality of life data may provide the best modality with which to compare economic outcomes in palliative surgery.

    4. Pediatric Oncology
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      Revision of the International Neuroblastoma Pathology Classification : Confirmation of favorable and unfavorable prognostic subsets in ganglioneuroblastoma, nodular (pages 2274–2281)

      Michel Peuchmaur, Emanuele S. G. d'Amore, Vijay V. Joshi, Jun-ichi Hata, Borghild Roald, Louis P. Dehner, Robert B. Gerbing, Daniel O. Stram, John N. Lukens, Katherine K. Matthay and Hiroyuki Shimada

      Article first published online: 30 SEP 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11773

      The International Neuroblastoma Pathology Committee (INPC) conducted a review of 70 tumors in the ganglioneuroblastoma, nodular (GNBn) category. After clearly defining morphologic characteristics of those tumors and completing a survival analysis, the INPC proposes to modify the International Neuroblastoma Pathology Classification for GNBn by distinguishing prognostic subsets, favorable and unfavorable, in this category.

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      Outcome in 34 patients with juvenile-onset mycosis fungoides : A clinical, immunophenotypic, and molecular study (pages 2282–2290)

      E. Mary Wain, Guy E. Orchard, Sean J. Whittaker, Margaret F. Spittle M.Sc. and Robin Russell-Jones

      Article first published online: 8 OCT 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11780

      A study of the clinical, histologic, and molecular features in 34 patients with juvenile-onset mycosis fungoides. The prognosis was similar to that of adult-onset disease, but the hypopigmented, poikilodermatous, and cytotoxic variants were overrepresented in children (24%, 26% and 38% of cases, respectively).

    6. Translational Research
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      Monitoring of circulating angiogenic factors in dendritic cell–based cancer immunotherapy (pages 2291–2301)

      Christine Brostjan, Anita Bayer, Anna Zommer, Alexander Gornikiewicz, Sebastian Roka, Thomas Benkö, Rubina Yaghubian, Raimund Jakesz, Günther Steger, Michael Gnant, Josef Friedl and Anton Stift

      Article first published online: 29 SEP 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11776

      Monitoring of angiogenic markers (vascular endothelial growth factor, platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor, and thrombospondin-1) during dendritic cell–based immunotherapy for patients with malignant disease revealed a rapid decline with treatment that was correlated with induction of an immunologic response.

  10. Correspondence

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorial
    3. Review Articles
    4. Original Articles
    5. Original Article
    6. Original Articles
    7. Original Article
    8. Original Articles
    9. Original Article
    10. Original Articles
    11. Correspondence
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      Author reply (page 2303)

      Ichinosuke Hyodo

      Article first published online: 12 SEP 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11779

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      Author reply (pages 2304–2305)

      Tito Livraghi and G.Scott Gazelle

      Article first published online: 2 OCT 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11784

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