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Cancer

Cover image for Cancer

1 December 2003

Volume 98, Issue 11

Pages 2307–2526

  1. Original Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Original Articles
    3. Original Article
    4. Book Review
    5. Book Reviews
    6. Correspondence
    1. Disease Site

      Breast Disease
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      Clinicopathologic features of metastasis in nonsentinel lymph nodes of breast carcinoma patients : A metaanalysis (pages 2307–2315)

      Amy C. Degnim, Kent A. Griffith, Michael S. Sabel, Daniel F. Hayes, Vincent M. Cimmino, Kathleen M. Diehl, Peter C. Lucas, Matthew L. Snyder, Alfred E. Chang and Lisa A. Newman

      Article first published online: 7 OCT 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11803

      The current study reports on the clinicopathologic characteristics associated with the presence of metastasis in nonsentinel lymph nodes of patients with sentinel lymph node-positive breast carcinoma. Based on a meta-analysis of studies published between 1999–2003, five pathologic characteristics are identified that are most strongly associated with nonsentinel lymph node metastasis.

    2. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Skin-sparing mastectomy : Specialty bias and worldwide lack of consensus (pages 2316–2321)

      Richard J. Bleicher, Nora M. Hansen and Armando E. Giuliano

      Article first published online: 7 OCT 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11801

      A worldwide survey on skin-sparing mastectomy (SSM) to assess knowledge level and bias was performed. Responses of individuals from 52 countries demonstrated a significant variation in opinion and a lack of understanding of SSM. Literature skepticism was highest among radiation oncologists.

    3. Endocrine Disease
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      Management of nonsinonasal neuroendocrine carcinomas of the head and neck (pages 2322–2328)

      Jerry L. Barker Jr., Bonnie S. Glisson, Adam S. Garden, Adel K. El-Naggar, William H. Morrison, K. Kian Ang, K. S. Clifford Chao, Gary Clayman and David I. Rosenthal

      Article first published online: 22 OCT 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11795

      The authors undertook a retrospective study to gain insights into the spectrum of clinicopathologic characteristics, patterns of failure, and optimal management of patients with nonsinonasal neuroendocrine carcinomas of the head and neck (NSNEC). The results indicated that the best treatment strategy for patients with NSNEC is sequential chemotherapy and radiation, with full-dose radiotherapy alone recommended for patients who achieve a complete clinical response to induction chemotherapy.

    4. Genitourinary Disease
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      Reassessment of the 1997 TNM classification system for renal cell carcinoma : A 5-cm T1/T2 cutoff is a better predictor of clinical outcome (pages 2329–2334)

      James M. Elmore, Keith T. Kadesky, Kenneth S. Koeneman and Arthur I. Sagalowsky

      Article first published online: 16 OCT 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11806

      Survival and disease recurrence analysis was performed for patients with renal cell carcinoma who underwent radical nephrectomy. The data showed that the 1997 TNM cutoff of 7.0 cm that was used to separate Stage I from Stage II was too high. A size-related survival difference was found among patients with organ-confined 1997 Stage I disease. A 5.0-cm cutoff best stratified this difference.

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      Disease-specific symptoms and general quality of life of patients with prostate carcinoma before and after primary three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (pages 2335–2343)

      Ilene Staff, Andrew Salner, Richard Bohannon, Pauline Panatieri and Rose Maljanian

      Article first published online: 14 OCT 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11805

      One hundred patients with prostate carcinoma participated in a prospective, repeated-measures study that explored urinary, bowel, and sexual symptoms and health-related quality of life. These patients were receiving primary three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy with or without neoadjuvant hormonal therapy at a regional cancer center. Patients reported higher health-related quality of life scores and fewer urinary symptoms compared with age-related general population norms. However, they experienced increased bowel symptoms, sexual dysfunction, and decreased vitality postradiotherapy. Ratings reported at a 5–10-month follow-up indicated that patients regained some lost vitality but a longer follow-up was suggested by the authors.

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      The percentage of prostate needle biopsy cores with carcinoma from the more involved side of the biopsy as a predictor of prostate specific antigen recurrence after radical prostatectomy : Results from the Shared Equal Access Regional Cancer Hospital (SEARCH) database (pages 2344–2350)

      Stephen J. Freedland, William J. Aronson, Martha K. Terris, Christopher J. Kane, Christopher L. Amling, Frederick Dorey and Joseph C. Presti Jr.

      Article first published online: 20 OCT 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11809

      The authors compared the total percentage of biopsy cores that were positive for prostate carcinoma with the percentage of cores from the more involved or dominant side of the prostate for their ability to predict PSA recurrence among men undergoing radical prostatectomy. Percent of cores positive from the dominant side was a slightly better predictor of PSA recurrence than the total percent of cores positive and when combined with PSA and biopsy Gleason score provided significant risk stratification for PSA failure.

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      Hormone therapy adjuvant to external beam radiotherapy for locally advanced prostate carcinoma : A complication-adjusted number-needed-to-treat analysis (pages 2351–2361)

      Ashesh B. Jani, Johnny Kao and Samuel Hellman

      Article first published online: 20 OCT 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11804

      The utility-adjusted survival achieved by adding hormone therapy to external beam radiotherapy for locally advanced prostate carcinoma was analyzed using the number-needed-to-treat method. Even after adjustment for complications, the results indicate an advantage associated with the addition of short-term and long-term hormone therapy. This encouraging finding is robust over the range of parameters that are likely to be encountered in clinical practice.

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      Clinical features of patients who present with metastatic prostate carcinoma and serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels < 10 ng/mL : The “PSA negative” patients (pages 2362–2367)

      Alison J. Birtle, Alex Freeman, John R. W. Masters, Heather A. Payne, Stephen J. Harland and Contributors to the BAUS Section of Oncology Cancer Registry

      Article first published online: 20 OCT 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11821

      Patients who present with metastatic prostate carcinoma and serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels < 10 ng/mL have a pattern of disease similar to that seen in patients who have high PSA levels. However, both response duration to first-line hormone therapy and overall survival are much shorter for patients with lower PSA levels, and second-line hormone treatment is ineffective.

    9. Gynecologic Oncology
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      Is endometrial carcinoma intrinsically more aggressive in elderly patients? (pages 2368–2377)

      Kaled M. Alektiar, Ennapadam Venkatraman, Nadeem Abu-Rustum and Richard R. Barakat

      Article first published online: 22 OCT 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11830

      In patients with Stage IB-II endometrial carcinoma, age ≥ 70 years has been found to be an independent predictor of poor outcome. The complications from adjuvant radiation were similar between those patients age ≥ 70 years and those age < 70 years. Older age is an intrinsically poor prognostic factor in endometrial carcinoma, mandating further improvement in the management of this subset of patients.

    10. Head and Neck Disease
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      Parathyroid carcinoma: Is there a role for adjuvant radiation therapy? (pages 2378–2384)

      Nathan D. Munson, Robert L. Foote, Robert C. Northcutt, Robert D. Tiegs, Lorraine A. Fitzpatrick, Clive S. Grant, Jonathan A. van Heerden, Geoffrey B. Thompson and Ricardo V. Lloyd

      Article first published online: 7 OCT 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11819

      Patients with parathyroid carcinoma have a significant risk of locoregional progression of disease after treatment with surgery alone. In the current study, the authors attempted to determine risk factors associated with postoperative progression of parathyroid carcinoma within the neck (locoregional) and to assess the efficacy of postoperative adjuvant radiation therapy in the prevention of locoregional disease progression.

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      Presence of the latent membrane protein 1 gene in nasopharyngeal swabs from patients with mucosal recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma (pages 2385–2392)

      Ngan-Ming Tsang, Chi-Cheng Chuang, Chen-Kan Tseng, Sheng-Po Hao, Tseng-Tong Kuo, Chien-Yu Lin and Ping-Ching Pai

      Article first published online: 7 OCT 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11820

      In this investigation, expression of the Epstein–Barr virus-encoded latent membrane protein 1 gene was examined in nasopharyngeal swab specimens from patients with treated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). This detection method provided high sensitivity and specificity for forecasting mucosal recurrences in patients with NPC.

    12. Hematologic Malignancies
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      Vinblastine, bleomycin, and methotrexate chemotherapy plus irradiation for patients with early-stage, favorable Hodgkin lymphoma : The experience of the Gruppo Italiano Studio Linfomi (pages 2393–2401)

      Paolo G. Gobbi, Chiara Broglia, Francesco Merli, Matteo Dell'Olio, Caterina Stelitano, Emilio Iannitto, Massimo Federico, Raffaella Bertè, Dimitri Luisi, Stefano Molica, Carla Cavalli, Laura Dezza and Edoardo Ascari

      Article first published online: 3 NOV 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11807

      The vinblastine, bleomycin, and methotrexate chemotherapy regimen is effective in patients with early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma. Administration of all chemotherapy cycles before radiotherapy improves tolerance, and pulmonary toxicity probably is mitigated further by reducing the bleomycin dose, mild prednisone therapy, and a more prolonged resting interval before radiotherapy.

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      Risk and timing of hospitalization for febrile neutropenia in patients receiving CHOP, CHOP-R, or CNOP chemotherapy for intermediate-grade non-Hodgkin lymphoma (pages 2402–2409)

      Gary H. Lyman and David J. Delgado

      Article first published online: 3 NOV 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11827

      Among patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma receiving cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone or similar chemotherapy regimens, an increased risk of hospitalization for febrile neutropenia was significantly associated with the following characteristics: age 65 years or older, serum albumin level at presentation less than or equal to 3.5 g/dL, planned greater than or equal to 80% average relative dose intensity, baseline absolute neutrophil count less than 1500/mm3, and the presence of hepatic disease. These data suggested that patients who are at increased risk of hospitalization for febrile neutropenia can be identified and potentially targeted for therapy.

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      Sequential interleukin 3 and granulocyte-macrophage–colony stimulating factor therapy in patients with bone marrow failure with long-term follow-up of responses (pages 2410–2419)

      Hillary H. Wu, Moshe Talpaz, Richard E. Champlin, Susan R. Pilat and Razelle Kurzrock

      Article first published online: 17 NOV 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11810

      Sequential interleukin 3 followed by granulocyte-macrophage–colony stimulating factor therapy is tolerated well in patients with chronic bone marrow failure. Biologic activity, including substantial improvement in platelets and durable multilineage responses, were observed in 26% and 16% of patients, respectively.

    15. Lung Disease
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      Microscopic analysis of chromium accumulation in the bronchi and lung of chromate workers (pages 2420–2429)

      Kazuya Kondo, Yuji Takahashi, Sumiyo Ishikawa, Hiroshi Uchihara, Yukiko Hirose, Kiyoshi Yoshizawa, Masaru Tsuyuguchi, Hiromitsu Takizawa, Takanori Miyoshi, Shoji Sakiyama and Yasumasa Monden

      Article first published online: 14 OCT 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11818

      The authors microscopically evaluated the accumulation of chromium in 10 resected lung tissue specimens and 90 biopsy specimens from chromate workers. Chromium accumulation in the proximal bronchi was less than in the bronchioles or subpleural regions of the lung. In addition, chromium accumulation increased significantly according to the progression of malignant change of the bronchial epithelium.

    16. Neuro-Oncology
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      Expression of tenascin-C in various human brain tumors and its relevance for survival in patients with astrocytoma (pages 2430–2439)

      Alexander Leins, Pietro Riva, Ragnar Lindstedt, Michail S. Davidoff, Parviz Mehraein and Serge Weis

      Article first published online: 13 OCT 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11796

      The distribution pattern of tenascin-C (TN-C), a large extracellular matrix (ECM) glycoprotein with a molecular weight of 180–250 kilodaltons, was studied in normal human brain tissue and in a large variety of brain tumors (n = 485 tumors) using 3 different monoclonal antibodies (clones BC2, BC4, and TN2). The most constant TN-C immunopositivity was seen in the ECM of the fibrotic stroma in highly malignant brain tumors and along the tumor border, especially in high-grade astrocytomas, suggesting that TN-C expression may be correlated with the grade of malignancy in astrocytic tumors. Furthermore, a Kaplan–Meier analysis showed that patients who had glioblastoma without TN-C immunopositivity in the ECM had a significantly longer survival (median, 28 months) compared with patients who had tumors with TN-C immunopositivity (median, 12 months), indicating that the presence or absence of TN-C expression in the stroma of astrocytic tumors may play a not yet clearly understood role in shortening or prolonging, respectively, the survival time of patients.

    17. Sarcoma
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      Impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy on the presenting features and outcome of patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome–related Kaposi sarcoma (pages 2440–2446)

      Guglielmo Nasti, Ferdinando Martellotta, Massimiliano Berretta, Maurizio Mena, Marco Fasan, Giovanni Di Perri, Renato Talamini, Gabriella Pagano, Maria Montroni, Roberta Cinelli, Emanuela Vaccher, Antonella D'Arminio Monforte and Umberto Tirelli

      Article first published online: 16 OCT 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11816

      The initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) before diagnosis of Kaposi sarcoma (KS) does not appear to have an impact on the natural history of KS or the outcome of patients with KS. Nonetheless, the authors found that KS exhibits less aggressive presentation characteristics in patients already receiving HAART compared with patients who are naive to HAART at diagnosis of KS.

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      Pattern of disease recurrence and prognostic factors in patients with osteosarcoma treated with contemporary chemotherapy (pages 2447–2456)

      Douglas S. Hawkins and Carola A. S. Arndt

      Article first published online: 14 OCT 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11799

      The lung, either in isolation or in combination with other locations, is the most common site of treatment failure for osteosarcoma. In the current chemotherapy era, disease-free survival and overall survival remained poor after disease recurrence despite aggressive surgical excision with or without salvage chemotherapy.

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      Single and multiple metachronous osteosarcoma tumors after therapy (pages 2457–2466)

      Norman Jaffe, Peggy Pearson, Alan W. Yasko, Patrick Lin, Cynthia Herzog and Kevin Raymond

      Article first published online: 3 NOV 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11800

      With improvement in the cure rate, metachronous osteosarcoma should be recognized as an important sequela in long-term survivors with osteosarcoma. The etiology of this disease is unknown. Meticulous follow-up is required to permit early detection and successful therapeutic intervention.

    20. Discipline

      Epidemiology
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      Impact of race on outcome after definitive radiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (pages 2467–2472)

      Majid O. F. Al-Othman, Christopher G. Morris, Henrietta L. Logan, Russell W. Hinerman, Robert J. Amdur and William M. Mendenhall

      Article first published online: 22 OCT 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11822

      The impact of race on prognosis was evaluated for 686 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck who were treated with radiotherapy. Multivariate analysis revealed that African American patients had worse outcomes in terms of survival compared with white patients.

    21. Medical Oncology
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      Improved prevention of moderately emetogenic chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting with palonosetron, a pharmacologically novel 5-HT3 receptor antagonist : Results of a Phase III, single-dose trial versus dolasetron (pages 2473–2482)

      Peter Eisenberg, Jazmin Figueroa-Vadillo, Rosalio Zamora, Veena Charu, Julio Hajdenberg, Alan Cartmell, Alberto Macciocchi and Steven Grunberg

      Article first published online: 16 OCT 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11817

      Palonosetron, a novel 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, has a stronger binding affinity and longer plasma elimination half-life than the other pharmacologic agents in its class. In a Phase III, single-dose trial versus dolasetron 100 mg, palonosetron 0.25 mg and 0.75 mg were as effective in preventing acute chemotherapy-induced vomiting and emesis (CINV) and superior in preventing delayed CINV after moderately emetogenic chemotherapy.

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      Imatinib mesylate causes hypopigmentation in the skin (pages 2483–2487)

      Anne S. Tsao, Hagop Kantarjian, Jorge Cortes, Susan O'Brien and Moshe Talpaz

      Article first published online: 8 OCT 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11812

      In the current study, the authors report a case series of patients treated with imatinib mesylate who developed a unique skin depigmentation toxicity. A review of the literature determined that this mechanism of action may occur via MAP kinase activation of the microphthalmia transcription factor of the tyrosine pigmentation gene promoter.

    23. Pediatric Oncology
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      A phase II study of topotecan with vincristine and doxorubicin in children with recurrent/refractory neuroblastoma (pages 2488–2494)

      Alberto Garaventa, Roberto Luksch, Simona Biasotti, Gianluca Severi, Maria Rosa Pizzitola, Elisabetta Viscardi, Arcangelo Prete, Stefano Mastrangelo, Marta Podda, Riccardo Haupt and Bruno De Bernardi

      Article first published online: 16 OCT 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11797

      Children older than age 1 year with Stage III or Stage IV recurrent or refractory neuroblastoma were treated with topotecan at an intravenous dose of 1.5 mg/m2 per day for 5 days followed by 48-hour intravenous infusions of 2 mg/m2 of vincristine and 45 mg/m2 of doxorubicin. This combination proved to be active, with a response rate of 56% after 2 courses. Toxicity generally was limited to the hematopoietic system, with no deaths due to infectious or toxic causes.

    24. Psychological Oncology
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      Change in smoking status after spiral chest computed tomography scan screening (pages 2495–2501)

      Lisa Sanderson Cox, Matthew M. Clark, James R. Jett, Christi A. Patten, Darrell R. Schroeder, Liza M. Nirelli, Stephen J. Swensen and Richard D. Hurt

      Article first published online: 20 OCT 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11813

      In a sample of 901 current smokers who participated in a low-dose, fast spiral chest computed tomography lung carcinoma screening project, the authors found that 14% were abstinent from smoking at a 1-year of follow-up. Therefore, it is possible that lung carcinoma screening can be used as an opportunity to provide effective nicotine interventions.

    25. Symptom Control and Palliative Care
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      Attitudes of medical oncologists toward palliative care for patients with advanced and incurable cancer : Report on a survey by the European Society of Medical Oncology taskforce on palliative and supportive care (pages 2502–2510)

      Nathan I. Cherny and Raphael Catane

      Article first published online: 16 OCT 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11815

      The European Society of Medical Oncology (ESMO) surveyed its membership regarding oncologists' involvement in and attitudes toward palliative care for patients with advanced cancer as part of a quality improvement program. Although most ESMO oncologists recognized the importance of palliative and supportive care for patients with advanced disease, many were not prepared adequately for those tasks, and actual participation levels commonly were suboptimal.

  2. Original Article

    1. Top of page
    2. Original Articles
    3. Original Article
    4. Book Review
    5. Book Reviews
    6. Correspondence
    1. Discipline

      Translational Research
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      Indole-3-carbinol induces a G1 cell cycle arrest and inhibits prostate-specific antigen production in human LNCaP prostate carcinoma cells (pages 2511–2520)

      Joann Zhang, Jocelyn C. Hsu B.A., Matthew A. Kinseth B.A., Leonard F. Bjeldanes and Gary L. Firestone

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11844

      The authors demonstrated that Indole-3-carbinol (I3C), a naturally occurring component of Brassica vegetables, such as broccoli, induced a G1 cell cycle arrest of prostate carcinoma cells. The cell cycle arrest was accompanied by specific alterations in the expression and activity of G1-acting cell cycle components and by the inhibition of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) production. Moreover, I3C acted cooperatively with the antiandrogen flutamide to arrest the growth of the LNCaP tumor cells and reduce PSA levels, implicating I3C as a potential chemotherapeutic agent for controlling the growth of human prostate carcinoma cells.

  3. Book Review

    1. Top of page
    2. Original Articles
    3. Original Article
    4. Book Review
    5. Book Reviews
    6. Correspondence
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  4. Book Reviews

    1. Top of page
    2. Original Articles
    3. Original Article
    4. Book Review
    5. Book Reviews
    6. Correspondence
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
  5. Correspondence

    1. Top of page
    2. Original Articles
    3. Original Article
    4. Book Review
    5. Book Reviews
    6. Correspondence
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
    2. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Author reply (pages 2523–2524)

      Funda Meric-Bernstam, Kelly K. Hunt and Thomas A. Buchholz

      Article first published online: 8 OCT 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11793

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      Sentinel lymph nodes (pages 2524–2525)

      Emmanuel Barranger and Emile Darai

      Article first published online: 7 OCT 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11811

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      Author reply (pages 2525–2526)

      Allan Covens

      Article first published online: 7 OCT 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11814

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