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Cancer

Cover image for Cancer

1 October 2003

Volume 98, Issue 7

Pages 1331–1554

  1. Editorial

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorial
    3. Reveiw Articles
    4. Review Article
    5. Original Articles
    6. Correspondence
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Lung carcinoma development after radiotherapy for breast carcinoma (pages 1331–1333)

      Thomas A. Buchholz

      Article first published online: 1 AUG 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11657

      Treatment-induced cancer is one of the greatest fears of patients receiving radiotherapy for breast carcinoma. Recent data suggest that radiation also may increase the risk of developing lung carcinoma. In their article, Deutsch et al. report rates of lung carcinoma development in 3515 breast carcinoma patients treated on the National Surgical Bowel and Breast Project (NSABP) B-04 and B-06 trials. These data are particularly valuable because both trials tested radiation as a randomized variable and both studies now have 20-year outcome information.

      See also pages 1362–8.

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      Breast carcinoma and antihypertensive therapy : Robbing Peter to pay Paul? (pages 1334–1336)

      Sharon H. Giordano

      Article first published online: 22 AUG 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11695

      Li et al. reported that the use of certain types of antihypertensive medication is associated with a modest increase in the risk of developing breast carcinoma. However, these findings should be interpreted with caution, as the number of comparisons made in the study was large, the magnitude of the observed effects was small, and the potential for biases was present. A number of studies have found no link between increased cancer risk and antihypertensive use. The findings of Li et al. should stimulate interest in the way in which specific classes of medication may influence breast carcinoma risk, but the bulk of the existing evidence suggests the absence of a significant link between antihypertensive use and breast carcinoma risk.

      See referenced original article on pages 1504–13, this issue.

  2. Reveiw Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorial
    3. Reveiw Articles
    4. Review Article
    5. Original Articles
    6. Correspondence
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      The biology and therapy of adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia (pages 1337–1354)

      Stefan Faderl, Sima Jeha and Hagop M. Kantarjian

      Article first published online: 25 AUG 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11664

      Chemotherapy regimens typically used to treat children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) have been adapted for use in adults and have improved patient response. Prognosis also has improved for patients with T-lineage ALL and mature–B-cell ALL. In contrast, the prognosis for patients with Philadelphia chromosome–positive ALL and other high-risk cytogenetic abnormalities remains poor. Closing the gap in outcome between children and adults with ALL and improving outcomes for patients with high-risk ALL are major challenges for the future.

  3. Review Article

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorial
    3. Reveiw Articles
    4. Review Article
    5. Original Articles
    6. Correspondence
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      Use of tamoxifen in the treatment of malignant melanoma : Systematic review and metaanalysis of randomized controlled trials (pages 1355–1361)

      Marko B. Lens, Tony Reiman and Amna F. Husain

      Article first published online: 13 AUG 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11644

      The current metaanalysis demonstrated that tamoxifen does not add to the overall response rate, complete response rate, or survival when administered with combined chemotherapy regimens. The strength of evidence did not support the use of tamoxifen in combination with other systemic chemotherapy for the treatment of metastatic melanoma.

  4. Original Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorial
    3. Reveiw Articles
    4. Review Article
    5. Original Articles
    6. Correspondence
    1. Disease Site

      Breast Disease
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      The incidence of lung carcinoma after surgery for breast carcinoma with and without postoperative radiotherapy : Results of National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP) clinical trials B-04 and B-06 (pages 1362–1368)

      Melvin Deutsch, Stephanie R. Land, Mirsada Begovic, H. Samuel Wieand, Norman Wolmark and Bernard Fisher

      Article first published online: 1 AUG 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11655

      Retrospective analysis of 1665 patient records from the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP) B-04 trial demonstrated a statistically significant increase in the incidence of second primary lung carcinoma in mastectomy patients who had received radiotherapy for breast carcinoma compared with those who had not. Similar analysis of 1850 patients in the NSABP B-06 trial demonstrated no such increase in those patients who received radiotherapy.

      See also pages 1331–3.

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      Radiofrequency ablation of invasive breast carcinoma followed by delayed surgical excision (pages 1369–1376)

      William E. Burak Jr., Doreen M. Agnese, Stephen P. Povoski, Tamara L. Yanssens, Kenneth J. Bloom, Paul E. Wakely and Dimitrios G. Spigos

      Article first published online: 8 AUG 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11642

      In the current study, 10 patients with invasive breast carcinoma underwent radiofrequency ablation of their breast tumors under local anesthesia, followed by delayed surgical excision. All patients tolerated the procedure with little or no discomfort, and on pathologic evaluation, no residual viable tumor was detected in 9 of 10 patients. A postablation magnetic resonance imaging scan demonstrated a well-defined zone of ablation and was correlated strongly with pathologic findings.

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      Combined trastuzumab and paclitaxel treatment better inhibits ErbB-2-mediated angiogenesis in breast carcinoma through a more effective inhibition of Akt than either treatment alone (pages 1377–1385)

      Kristine S. Klos, Xiaoyan Zhou, Sangkyou Lee, Lianglin Zhang, Wentao Yang, Yoichi Nagata and Dihua Yu

      Article first published online: 12 AUG 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11656

      The authors investigated whether ErbB-2-mediated angiogenic responses could be inhibited effectively by a combined treatment of trastuzumab (Herceptin, Genentech, South San Francisco, CA) plus paclitaxel (Taxol, Bristol Myers-Squibb, Princeton, NJ). Mice bearing ErbB-2-overexpressing breast carcinoma cell xenografts that were treated with combined trastuzumab plus paclitaxel experienced greater reduction in tumor volume, microvessel density, and less metastasis to the lungs than mice treated with either trastuzumab or paclitaxel alone. In vitro, ErbB-2-overexpressing breast carcinoma cells secreted less vascular endothelial growth factor, stimulated less endothelial cell migration, and had reduced phosphorylation on serine 473 of Akt when they were treated with combined trastuzumab plus paclitaxel than when they were treated with either agent alone. Therefore, the trastuzumab plus paclitaxel combination more effectively reduced angiogenesis in ErbB-2-overexpressing breast carcinoma cells than either agent alone and this may be mediated through the reduction of phosphorylated and activated Akt.

    4. Endocrine Disease
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      c-Met expression in tall cell variant papillary carcinoma of the thyroid (pages 1386–1393)

      Heather C. Nardone, Amy F. Ziober, Virginia A. LiVolsi, Susan J. Mandel, Zubair W. Baloch, Randal S. Weber, Rosemarie Mick and Barry L. Ziober

      Article first published online: 22 AUG 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11638

      One of the most aggressive forms of thyroid carcinoma is tall cell variant papillary carcinoma. Increased expression of c-Met, a tyrosine kinase receptor known to influence cell invasion, is a significant marker for tall cell variant papillary carcinoma.

    5. Gastrointestinal Tract
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      REG gene expression is associated with the infiltrating growth of gastric carcinoma (pages 1394–1400)

      Yutaka Yonemura, Shigeru Sakurai, Hiroshi Yamamoto, Yoshio Endou, Taiichi Kawamura, Etsurou Bandou, Ayman Elnemr, Kazuo Sugiyama, Takuma Sasaki, Takako Akiyama, Shin Takasawa and Hiroshi Okamoto

      Article first published online: 22 AUG 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11658

      The REG gene is believed to be associated with the growth of pancreatic B-cells as well as epithelial cells of the gastrointestinal tract. In the current study, the authors investigated REG mRNA and REG protein expression using reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction, Western blot analysis, and immunohistochemistry, and found patients with REG-negative differentiated adenocarcinoma have a significantly better prognosis compared with patients with REG-positive tumors.

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      Preclinical evaluation of therapeutic effects of targeted cytotoxic analogs of somatostatin and bombesin on human gastric carcinomas (pages 1401–1410)

      Karoly Szepeshazi, Andrew V. Schally, Attila Nagy, Brady W. Wagner, Ana Maria Bajo and Gabor Halmos

      Article first published online: 12 AUG 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11649

      Targeted cytotoxic analogs of somatostatin and bombesin were found to inhibit the growth of human gastric carcinoma cell lines xenografted into nude mice. This inhibition was dependent on the concentration of subtype 2 and 5 somatostatin receptors or the expression of subtype 1 bombesin receptors in the tumors.

    7. Genitourinary Disease
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      Genetic polymorphisms of estrogen receptor alpha, CYP19, catechol-O-methyltransferase are associated with familial prostate carcinoma risk in a Japanese population (pages 1411–1416)

      Kazuhiro Suzuki, Haruki Nakazato, Hiroshi Matsui, Hidekazu Koike, Hironobu Okugi, Bunzo Kashiwagi, Masahiro Nishii, Nobuaki Ohtake, Seiji Nakata, Kazuto Ito and Hidetoshi Yamanaka

      Article first published online: 13 AUG 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11639

      Familial prostate carcinoma risk was associated with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of estrogen receptor alpha, aromatase (CYP19), and catechol -O-methyltransferase genes. The SNPs of low-penetrance genes are targets for understanding the genetic susceptibility for familial prostate carcinoma.

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      Predictive modeling for the presence of prostate carcinoma using clinical, laboratory, and ultrasound parameters in patients with prostate specific antigen levels ≤ 10 ng/mL (pages 1417–1422)

      Mark Garzotto, R. Guy Hudson, Laura Peters, Yi-Ching Hsieh, Eduardo Barrera, Motomi Mori, Tomasz M. Beer and Thomas Klein

      Article first published online: 26 AUG 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11668

      Current prostate carcinoma screening methods are sensitive but lack the specificity to reduce the numbers of unnecessary biopsy procedures. The authors developed a multifactorial nomogram that allows for the reduction in biopsy procedures while retaining sensitivity.

    9. Gynecologic Oncology
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      The effect of cyclooxygenase-2 expression on tumor vascularity in advanced stage ovarian serous carcinoma (pages 1423–1429)

      Rouba Ali-Fehmi, Mingxin Che, Ibrahim Khalifeh, John M. Malone, Robert Morris, W. Dwayne Lawrence and Adnan R. Munkarah

      Article first published online: 21 AUG 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11650

      Cyclooxygenase-2 overexpression is associated with increased tumor vascularity and shortened survival in women with advanced serous ovarian carcinoma.

    10. Hematologic Malignancies
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      Analysis of the impact of imatinib mesylate therapy on the prognosis of patients with Philadelphia chromosome–positive chronic myelogenous leukemia treated with interferon-α regimens for early chronic phase (pages 1430–1437)

      Hagop Kantarjian, Susan O'Brien, Jorges Cortes, Jianqin Shan, Francis Giles, Guillermo Garcia-Manero, Srdan Verstovsek, Stefan Faderl, Mary Beth Rios and Moshe Talpaz

      Article first published online: 22 AUG 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11665

      The authors evaluated the benefit of adding imatinib to the treatment of patients with early chronic phase, Philadelphia chromosome–positive chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) who received interferon-α-based regimens as frontline therapy. The results indicated a survival benefit from imatinib therapy in the treatment of patients with chronic phase CML and a possible role for the use of imatinib combinations.

    11. Hepatobiliary Disease
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      Prognostic value of serum MUC5AC mucin in patients with cholangiocarcinoma (pages 1438–1443)

      Chanchai Boonla, Sopit Wongkham, John Kieran Sheehan, Chaisiri Wongkham, Vajarabhongsa Bhudhisawasdi, Nisana Tepsiri and Chawalit Pairojkul

      Article first published online: 8 AUG 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11652

      Detection of serum MUC5AC is related to tumor size and poor survival in patients with cholangiocarcinoma. Multivariate analysis indicated a hazard ratio of 2.5 in patients who were positive for serum MUC5AC.

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      Expression of hepatoma-derived growth factor in hepatocellular carcinoma : A novel prognostic factor (pages 1444–1456)

      Tsung-Hui Hu, Chao-Cheng Huang, Li-Feng Liu, Pey-Ru Lin, Shang-Yun Liu, Hsueh-Wen Chang, Chi-Sin Changchien, Chuan-Mo Lee, Jiin-Haur Chuang and Ming Hong Tai

      Article first published online: 22 AUG 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11653

      Hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF) is a novel mitogen for hepatocytes. The mRNA and protein levels of HDGF are up-regulated in malignant hepatoma cells. In clinical hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) specimens, increased nuclear HDGF expression is correlated with dedifferentiation, high serum α-fetoprotein levels, proliferating cell nuclear antigen overexpression, tumor recurrence, and poor prognosis of patients with HCC.

    13. Lung Disease
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      Effects of smoking and radiotherapy on lung carcinoma in breast carcinoma survivors (pages 1457–1464)

      Melissa B. Ford, Alice J. Sigurdson, Elaine S. Petrulis, Chaan S. Ng, Bonnie Kemp, Catherine Cooksley, Marsha McNeese, Beatrice J. Selwyn, Margaret R. Spitz and Melissa L. Bondy

      Article first published online: 22 AUG 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11669

      The combined effects of thoracic radiotherapy and cigarette smoking are not known with certainty, but they have important implications for lung carcinogenesis after cancer therapy in some patients. In a hospital based case–control study, the authors observed a marked increase in the risk of lung carcinoma among women who smoked cigarettes and who received radiotherapy for breast carcinoma.

    14. Neuro-Oncology
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      Cyclooxygenase-2 in oligodendroglial neoplasms (pages 1465–1472)

      Elias A. Castilla, Richard A. Prayson, Andrew A. Kanner, Lisa A. Rybicki, Raymond R. Tubbs, Michael A. Vogelbaum and Gene H. Barnett

      Article first published online: 1 AUG 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11632

      Chromosome 1p, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) immunoreactivity, and MIB-1 labeling indices were correlated with outcome and were associated with decreased survival. There was not a one-to-one correspondence between COX-2 immunoreactivity and the absence of allelic loss at chromosome 1p. Tumors with expression of COX-2 by immunohistochemistry may, in theory, benefit from treatment with therapeutic agents that inhibit COX-2.

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      Radiotherapy alone or after subtotal resection for benign skull base meningiomas (pages 1473–1482)

      William M. Mendenhall, Christopher G. Morris, Robert J. Amdur, Kelly D. Foote and William A. Friedman

      Article first published online: 14 AUG 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11645

      The authors analyzed long-term local control and complications in a series of patients who received radiotherapy for the treatment of benign skull base meningiomas. The long-term local control rate 15 years after radiotherapy was 92%. Severe complications occurred in 8 of 101 patients.

    16. Sarcoma
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      Isolated limb perfusion with tumor necrosis factor-α and melphalan for patients with unresectable soft tissue sarcoma of the extremities (pages 1483–1490)

      Eva M. Noorda, Bart C. Vrouenraets, Omgo E. Nieweg, Frits van Coevorden, Gooike W. van Slooten and Bin B. R. Kroon

      Article first published online: 22 AUG 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11648

      In this series, among patients with unresectable soft tissue sarcomas of the limbs who underwent tumor necrosis factor-α–isolated limb perfusion with resectional surgery when possible, response rates and limb preservation rates were relatively low compared with previous reports. However, more than 50% of patients were able to undergo salvage surgery with an acceptable morbidity rate and a low local recurrence rate.

    17. Discipline

      Clinical Trials
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      Cost-effectiveness and lung cancer clinical trials (pages 1491–1496)

      Wei Du, Jaxk H. Reeves, Shirish Gadgeel, Judith Abrams and William P. Peters

      Article first published online: 25 AUG 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11659

      The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of clinical trial treatments in lung cancer after adjustment for confounders was $9741 per life year saved. This result suggested that enrollment in lung cancer trials was a cost-effective alternative to standard treatment.

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      Effect of education level on outcome of patients treated on Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Protocol 90-03 (pages 1497–1503)

      Andre Konski, Brian A. Berkey, K. Kian Ang and Karen K. Fu

      Article first published online: 22 AUG 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11661

      Patients of lower education status treated on a national randomized clinical trial had worse outcome compared with patients of higher education status. This difference could not be explained by differences in disease state or treatment. Further investigation is necessary to explain the difference and design interventions for this subgroup of patients.

    19. Epidemiology
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      Relation between use of antihypertensive medications and risk of breast carcinoma among women ages 65–79 years (pages 1504–1513)

      Christopher I. Li, Kathleen E. Malone, Noel S. Weiss, Denise M. Boudreau, Kara L. Cushing-Haugen and Janet R. Daling

      Article first published online: 21 AUG 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11663

      In this population-based case–control study, the authors found that use of particular types of antihypertensive medications, including immediate-release calcium channel blockers and certain diuretics, may increase the risk of breast carcinoma among older women. Additional studies are warranted to clarify these potential associations.

    20. Medical Oncology
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      Increased incidence of symptomatic venous thrombosis in patients with cervical carcinoma treated with concurrent chemotherapy, radiation, and erythropoietin (pages 1514–1520)

      Ted Wun, Lisa Law, Danielle Harvey, Barbara Sieracki, Sidney A. Scudder and Janice K. Ryu

      Article first published online: 26 AUG 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11700

      In this retrospective case–control study, the authors found that there was an increased risk of symptomatic venous thrombosis associated with the use of recombinant human erythropoietin in the treatment of patients with carcinoma of the uterine cervix and vagina who had received combined chemotherapy and radiation therapy.

    21. Pathology
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      Histomorphology and grading of regression in gastric carcinoma treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (pages 1521–1530)

      Karen Becker, James D. Mueller, Christoph Schulmacher, Katja Ott, Ulrich Fink, Raymonde Busch, Knut Böttcher, J. Rüdiger Siewert and Heinz Höfler

      Article first published online: 29 AUG 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11660

      In patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy for gastric carcinoma, tumor regression is correlated significantly with survival, but tumor size and lymphatic vessel invasion are better prognostic indicators. Survival prediction after neoadjuvant chemotherapy would be improved by adding tumor size and lymphatic vessel involvement to tumor regression grade.

    22. Symptom Control and Palliative Care
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      The burdens of cancer therapy : Clinical and economic outcomes of chemotherapy-induced mucositis (pages 1531–1539)

      Linda S. Elting, Catherine Cooksley, Mark Chambers, Scott B. Cantor, Ellen Manzullo and Edward B. Rubenstein

      Article first published online: 14 AUG 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11671

      Oral and gastrointestinal mucositis are associated with increased risk of serious clinical outcomes (infection and bleeding) among myelosuppressed patients with solid tumors or lymphoma. These outcomes result in a corresponding increase in resource utilization. Preventive and therapeutic interventions are needed in this population.

    23. Translational Research
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      High-resolution methylation analysis of the hMLH1 promoter in sporadic endometrial and colorectal carcinomas (pages 1540–1546)

      Maria Strazzullo, Antonio Cossu, Paola Baldinu, Maria Colombino, Maria P. Satta, Francesco Tanda, Maria L. De Bonis, Andrea Cerase, Michele D'Urso, Maurizio D'Esposito and Giuseppe Palmieri

      Article first published online: 25 AUG 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11651

      Microsatellite instability in sporadic endometrial and colorectal carcinomas is associated with inactivation of the hMLH1 mismatch repair gene. A high-density methylation pattern within the hMLH1 promoter region has been demonstrated in approximately one-fifth of unstable carcinomas and appears to be responsible for hMLH1 inactivation in that subset of tumors.

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      Overexpression of the 32-kilodalton dopamine and cyclic adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate-regulated phosphoprotein in common adenocarcinomas (pages 1547–1551)

      Andy Beckler, Christopher A. Moskaluk, Alexander Zaika, Garret M. Hampton, Steven M. Powell, Henry F. Frierson Jr. and Wa'el El-Rifai

      Article first published online: 29 AUG 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11654

      The current study demonstrates that the 32-kilodalton dopamine and cyclic adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate-regulated phosphoprotein (DARPP-32) is expressed variably in a wide range of epithelial cells types outside of the central nervous system and that DARPP-32 and its truncated isoform, t-DARPP, frequently are overexpressed in adenocarcinomas of the breast, prostate, colon, and stomach. The findings suggest that DARPP-32 proteins may play a role in epithelial cell signaling and may contribute to the pathogenesis of several of the most common human carcinomas.

  5. Correspondence

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorial
    3. Reveiw Articles
    4. Review Article
    5. Original Articles
    6. Correspondence
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
    2. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Author reply (pages 1553–1554)

      Håkan Olsson, Christian Ingvar and Anna Bladström

      Article first published online: 12 AUG 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11696

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