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Cancer

Cover image for Cancer

15 October 2003

Volume 98, Issue 8

Pages 1555–1778

  1. Ethics and Law in Oncology

    1. Top of page
    2. Ethics and Law in Oncology
    3. Editorial
    4. Original Articles
    5. Original Article
    6. Original Articles
    7. Correspondence
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      What modern physicians can learn from Hippocrates (pages 1555–1558)

      Stanley Joel Reiser

      Version of Record online: 8 SEP 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11565

      The Hippocratic writings on ethics are more than 2500 years old, yet they remain the foundational works of modern ethical thinking in Western medicine. Accordingly, a perspective on their breadth and insights into the practice of medicine can help contemporary physicians in a variety of medical specialties, and particularly clarify clinical issues in oncology. In this article, four significant themes that pervade Hippocratic ethical thinking are examined using the Hippocratic texts as the data source. These themes are: the limits of medicine, the search for benefits, bedside humanism, and the connections of teaching and practice. Principles from the 1984 and 1995 M. D. Anderson Cancer Center Codes of Ethics are used to illustrate and explore the modern context of each of the themes.

  2. Editorial

    1. Top of page
    2. Ethics and Law in Oncology
    3. Editorial
    4. Original Articles
    5. Original Article
    6. Original Articles
    7. Correspondence
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      High time for low-dose prospective clinical trials (pages 1559–1561)

      Robert S. DiPaola, Henry J. Durivage and Barton A. Kamen

      Version of Record online: 25 AUG 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11709

      The article by Glode et al. in this issue reports on the empiric success, as defined by a decreased prostate specific antigen level and lack of toxicity, of metronomically delivered low-dose chemotherapy for patients with hormone-refractory prostate carcinoma. The data presented were collected as a retrospective evaluation of the medical records of patients treated with cyclophosphamide and dexamethasone who were unable to participate in Phase II drug trials or had failed previous chemotherapy regimens.

  3. Original Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Ethics and Law in Oncology
    3. Editorial
    4. Original Articles
    5. Original Article
    6. Original Articles
    7. Correspondence
    1. Disease Site

      Breast Disease
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      Application of immunofluorescence for intraoperative evaluation of sentinel lymph nodes in patients with breast carcinoma (pages 1562–1568)

      Satoru Munakata, Tomohiko Aihara, Hideo Morino and Yuichi Takatsuka

      Version of Record online: 27 AUG 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11689

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      Immunofluorescence staining with cytokeratin antibodies was used to evaluate sentinel lymph nodes in patients with breast carcinoma. Immunofluorescence is a rapid, highly sensitive, and highly specific method by which breast carcinoma metastasis to lymph nodes can be diagnosed using touch imprints.

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      Disruption of the expected positive correlation between breast tumor size and lymph node status in BRCA1-related breast carcinoma (pages 1569–1577)

      William D. Foulkes, Kelly Metcalfe, Wedad Hanna, Henry T. Lynch, Parviz Ghadirian, Nadine Tung, Olofunmilayo Olopade, Barbara Weber, Jane McLennan, Ivo A. Olivotto, Ping Sun, Pierre O. Chappuis, Louis R. Bégin, Jean-Sébastien Brunet and Steven A. Narod

      Version of Record online: 8 SEP 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11688

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      Breast tumor size and the number of positive lymph nodes found at axillary dissection are related directly. This relation is much less strong in BRCA1-related breast carcinoma compared with other types of breast carcinoma, suggesting that the pattern of metastatic spread of BRCA1-related breast carcinoma may differ from both BRCA2-related and nonhereditary breast carcinoma.

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      Coagulopathic complications in breast cancer (pages 1578–1586)

      Graham J. Caine, Paul S. Stonelake, Daniel Rea and Gregory Y. H. Lip

      Version of Record online: 27 AUG 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11702

      In the current review, the authors discuss the problem of thromboembolism in patients with breast cancer who are undergoing therapy, the mechanisms by which thromboembolisms occur, and the potential strategies by which these events can be prevented.

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      A comparison of five immunohistochemical biomarkers and HER-2/neu gene amplification by fluorescence in situ hybridization in white and Korean patients with early-onset breast carcinoma (pages 1587–1595)

      Doo Ho Choi, Dong Bok Shin, Min Hyuk Lee, Dong Wha Lee, Devika Dhandapani, Darryl Carter, Bonnie L. King and Bruce G. Haffty

      Version of Record online: 17 SEP 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11703

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      The authors compared five tumor markers between Korean women and white women in the U.S. with early-onset breast carcinoma. There were high levels of positivity for HER-2/neu in the Korean cohort, which may have potential implications for local and systemic management of breast carcinoma.

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      Relation between the method of detection of initial breast carcinoma and the method of detection of subsequent ipsilateral local recurrence and contralateral breast carcinoma (pages 1596–1602)

      Changhu Chen, Susan G. Orel, Eleanor E. R. Harris, Wei-Ting Hwang and Lawrence J. Solin

      Version of Record online: 14 AUG 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11685

      The relation between the method of detection of the initial breast carcinoma and the method of detection of subsequent ipsilateral local recurrence and contralateral breast carcinoma was evaluated. Both mammography and physical examination were found to be important for detecting local recurrence in the ipsilateral breast and for detecting contralateral breast carcinoma, regardless of the method of detection of the primary tumor.

    6. Genitourinary Disease
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      Phase II trial of oral cyclophosphamide, prednisone, and diethylstilbestrol for androgen-independent prostate carcinoma (pages 1603–1610)

      Beth Hellerstedt, Kenneth J. Pienta, Bruce G. Redman, Peg Esper, Rodney Dunn, Judith Fardig, Karin Olson and David C. Smith

      Version of Record online: 25 AUG 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11686

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      A Phase II trial was designed to evaluate the combination of oral cyclophosphamide, oral prednisone, and diethylstilbestrol (DES) in patients with androgen-independent prostate carcinoma (AIPC). Cyclophosphamide, prednisone, and DES represent a well-tolerated, low-cost combination therapy with significant activity in the treatment of patients with AIPC.

  4. Original Article

    1. Top of page
    2. Ethics and Law in Oncology
    3. Editorial
    4. Original Articles
    5. Original Article
    6. Original Articles
    7. Correspondence
    1. Disease Site

      Genitourinary Disease
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      Response assessment classification in patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma treated on clinical trials : Effect of measurement criteria and other parameters (pages 1611–1619)

      Lawrence H. Schwartz, Madhu Mazumdar, Liang Wang, Alex Smith, Stephanie Marion, David M. Panicek and Robert J. Motzer

      Version of Record online: 9 SEP 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11712

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      The use of unidimensional measurements for response assessment in patients with renal cell carcinoma yields a significantly different apparent time to progression assessment compared with the use of bidimensional measurements. Response assessments in patients with renal cell carcinoma also can differ if measurements of the primary renal tumor are included or excluded in the sum of the measurements.

  5. Original Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Ethics and Law in Oncology
    3. Editorial
    4. Original Articles
    5. Original Article
    6. Original Articles
    7. Correspondence
    1. Disease Site

      Genitourinary Disease
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      The development of bladder tumors and contralateral upper urinary tract tumors after primary transitional cell carcinoma of the upper urinary tract (pages 1620–1626)

      Chih-Hsiung Kang, Tsan-Jung Yu, Hwei-Ho Hsieh, Joseph W. Yang, Kenneth Shu, Chao-Cheng Huang, Po-Huang Chiang and Yow-Ling Shiue

      Version of Record online: 10 SEP 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11691

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      After primary transitional cell carcinoma of the upper urinary tract, renal insufficiency, uremia, and concurrent bladder tumors are significant risk factors for the development of contralateral upper urinary tract tumors. Regular follow-up of these patients is recommended for early diagnosis and treatment.

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      Weekly administration of docetaxel for symptomatic metastatic hormone-refractory prostate carcinoma : Evaluation of clinical benefit, quality of life, and tolerance (pages 1627–1634)

      Gwenaelle Gravis, Franck Bladou, Naji Salem, Geneviève Macquart-Moulin, Gérard Serment, Jacques Camerlo, Dominique Genre, Valérie-Jeanne Bardou, Dominique Maraninchi and Patrice Viens

      Version of Record online: 17 SEP 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11687

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      A Phase II study involving weekly docetaxel in symptomatic men with metastatic hormone-refractory prostate carcinoma was associated with improvements in clinical benefit response, quality of life, and drug tolerance.

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      Factors that influence the results of salvage surgery in patients with chemorefractory germ cell carcinomas with elevated tumor markers (pages 1635–1642)

      Tomonori Habuchi, Toshiyuki Kamoto, Isao Hara, Koji Kawai, Masahiro Nakao, Norio Nonomura, Takashi Kobayashi, Osamu Ogawa, Sadao Kamidono, Hideyuki Akaza, Akihiko Okuyama, Tetsuro Kato and Tsuneharu Miki

      Version of Record online: 2 SEP 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11711

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      Salvage surgery in patients with high levels of serum tumor markers after systemic chemotherapy resulted in long-term disease free status in approximately 40% of patients with disseminated (Stage II or III) testicular germ cell carcinoma or extragonadal germ cell carcinoma. Patients with elevated α-fetoprotein levels alone (i.e., normal levels of serum human chorionic gonadotropin) and patients with lymph node lesions alone appeared to have a better chance of survival.

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      Metronomic therapy with cyclophosphamide and dexamethasone for prostate carcinoma (pages 1643–1648)

      L. Michael Glode, Albaha Barqawi, Frances Crighton, E. David Crawford and Robert Kerbel

      Version of Record online: 25 AUG 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11713

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      In the current study, low-dose dexamethasone and cyclophosphamide were found to demonstrate efficacy as salvage therapy in the treatment of patients with hormone-resistant prostate carcinoma.

      See also pages 1559–61.

    5. Gynecologic Oncology
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      Motility-related protein 1 (MRP-1/CD9) expression in urothelial bladder carcinoma and its relation to tumor recurrence and progression (pages 1649–1657)

      Paulette Mhawech, Françoís Herrmann, Monique Coassin, Louis Guillou and Christophe E. Iselin

      Version of Record online: 27 AUG 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11698

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      CD9 expression is associated significantly with tumor grade and stage. Lack of CD9 expression is an independent prognostic factor in predicting tumor progression, but not recurrence, in patients with superficial papillary tumors of the urinary bladder.

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      Endometriosis-associated ovarian carcinoma : Differential expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and estrogen/progesterone receptors (pages 1658–1663)

      Marcela G. del Carmen, Anne E. Smith Sehdev, Amanda Nickles Fader, Marianna L. Zahurak, Michael Richardson, John P. Fruehauf, F. J. Montz and Robert E. Bristow

      Version of Record online: 27 AUG 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11714

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      Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was overexpressed in endometriosis-associated ovarian carcinoma. This variation in VEGF expression may be associated with the malignant transformation of endometriosis and may present both diagnostic and therapeutic options for the treatment of ovarian malignancies.

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      Phase II evaluation of three-day topotecan in recurrent platinum-sensitive ovarian carcinoma : A Gynecologic Oncology Group study (pages 1664–1669)

      David Scott Miller, John A. Blessing, Samuel S. Lentz and D. Scott McMeekin

      Version of Record online: 9 SEP 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11690

      A modified 3-day schedule of topotecan is less active than the approved 5-day regimen for the treatment of patients with platinum-sensitive recurrent ovarian carcinoma.

    8. Head and Neck Disease
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      National Cancer Data Base report on osteosarcoma of the head and neck (pages 1670–1680)

      Russell B. Smith, Louis W. Apostolakis, Lucy H. Karnell, Brenton B. Koch, Robert A. Robinson, Weining Zhen, Herman R. Menck and Henry T. Hoffman

      Version of Record online: 4 SEP 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11716

      Analysis of a relatively large sample of patients with osteosarcoma of the head and neck (n = 496 patients) extracted from the National Cancer Data Base indicated that survival has improved over the last 2 decades compared with historic controls. Prognostic patient and tumor factors were identified. Surgical resection with clear margins is an important predictor of long-term survival. The role of chemotherapy in managing this disease is not well defined, but data suggest that its incorporation into therapy for patients with high-risk tumors may improve long-term survival.

    9. Hematologic Malignancies
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      The clinical significance of soluble CD86 levels in patients with acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome (pages 1681–1688)

      Barry D. Hock, Judith L. McKenzie, William Nigel Patton, Lisa F. Haring, Ying Yang, Yu Shen, Elihu H. Estey and Maher Albitar

      Version of Record online: 27 AUG 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11693

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      In the current study, the authors demonstrated that, in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), elevated plasma levels of soluble CD86 (sCD86) were associated with significantly reduced complete remission (CR) rates and that, in younger patients with AML, sCD86 levels provided a prognostic marker independent of cytogenetics. Levels of sCD86 in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome were not associated with either the CR rate or survival.

    10. Hepatobiliary Disease
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      Patterns of initial disease recurrence after resection of gallbladder carcinoma and hilar cholangiocarcinoma : Implications for adjuvant therapeutic strategies (pages 1689–1700)

      William R. Jarnagin, Leyo Ruo, Sarah A. Little, David Klimstra, Michael D'Angelica, Ronald P. DeMatteo, Raquel Wagman, Leslie H. Blumgart and Yuman Fong

      Version of Record online: 21 AUG 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11699

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      After resection, recurrent gallbladder carcinoma (GBCA) is much more likely than hilar cholangiocarcinoma to involve a distant site. GBCA is also associated with a much shorter time to disease recurrence and a shorter survival after disease recurrence.

    11. Lung Disease
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      XRCC3 genetic polymorphism, smoking, and lung carcinoma risk in minority populations (pages 1701–1706)

      Yunfei Wang, Dong Liang, Margaret R. Spitz, Kerang Zhang, Qiong Dong, Christopher I. Amos and Xifeng Wu

      Version of Record online: 25 AUG 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11692

      The authors studied the XRCC3 Thr241Met polymorphism as a possible genetic risk factor for lung carcinoma in African Americans and Mexican Americans. The polymorphism appeared to be associated with increased risk of lung carcinoma in certain subgroups, and that association may depend heavily on the degree of smoking.

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      Gemcitabine, paclitaxel, and cisplatin as induction chemotherapy for patients with biopsy-proven Stage IIIA(N2) nonsmall cell lung carcinoma : A phase II multicenter study (pages 1707–1715)

      Filippo De Marinis, Fabrizio Nelli, Maria Rita Migliorino, Olga Martelli, Enrico Cortesi, Stefano Treggiari, Luigi Portalone, Carlo Crispino, Luigi Brancaccio and Cesare Gridelli

      Version of Record online: 29 AUG 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11662

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      The combination of gemcitabine, paclitaxel, and cisplatin has proven to be safe and highly active as induction chemotherapy for patients with biopsy-proven Stage IIIA(N2) nonsmall cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). The response rate and tumor downstaging associated with this regimen indicate that it is a promising treatment option for locally advanced NSCLC.

    13. Sarcoma
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      Cutaneous angiosarcoma of the scalp : A multidisciplinary approach (pages 1716–1726)

      Timothy M. Pawlik, Augusto F. Paulino, Cornelius J. Mcginn, Laurence H. Baker, Deborah S. Cohen, Jeffery S. Morris, Riley Rees and Vernon K. Sondak

      Version of Record online: 25 AUG 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11667

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      Angiosarcoma of the scalp is a rare but lethal tumor about which little is known. In this study, the authors report on 29 patients with angiosarcoma exclusively of the scalp. The results show that surgical excision alone frequently is inadequate and that the addition of postoperative radiation therapy may lead to improved long-term survival.

    14. Discipline

      Epidemiology
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      Prostate carcinoma risk subsequent to diagnosis of benign prostatic hyperplasia : A population-based cohort study in Sweden (pages 1727–1734)

      Anand P. Chokkalingam, Olof Nyrén, Jan-Erik Johansson, Gloria Gridley, Joseph K. McLaughlin, Hans-Olov Adami and Ann W. Hsing

      Version of Record online: 12 SEP 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11710

      A population-based cohort of 86,626 Swedish patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) was followed for up to 26 years. Little, if any, excess risk of prostate carcinoma (2% excess incidence after 10 years of follow-up) was found relative to the general population. However, the incidence and mortality of prostate carcinoma differed markedly by type of surgical BPH treatment, suggesting that factors related to treatment or health reasons underlying the selection of treatment influence subsequent prostate carcinoma risk.

    15. Medical Oncology
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      Long-term efficacy and safety of zoledronic acid compared with pamidronate disodium in the treatment of skeletal complications in patients with advanced multiple myeloma or breast carcinoma : A randomized, double-blind, multicenter, comparative trial (pages 1735–1744)

      Lee S. Rosen, David Gordon, Mary Kaminski, Anthony Howell, Andrew Belch, John Mackey, Justus Apffelstaedt, Mohamad A. Hussein, Robert E. Coleman, Dirk J. Reitsma, Bee-Lian Chen and John J. Seaman

      Version of Record online: 29 AUG 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11701

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      Zoledronic acid (4 mg) administered as a 15-minute intravenous infusion every 3–4 weeks is safe and well tolerated in patients with bone lesions secondary to breast carcinoma or multiple myeloma. During this 25-month study, it was found that zoledronic acid was more effective, based on multiple-event analysis, than pamidronate in reducing the risk of developing skeletal complications in patients with bone lesions from metastatic breast carcinoma and multiple myeloma.

    16. Pathology
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      Is the long-term survival of patients with intracranial glioblastoma multiforme overstated? (pages 1745–1748)

      Roger E. McLendon and Edward C. Halperin

      Version of Record online: 26 AUG 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11666

      The long-term survival of intracranial glioblastoma multiforme is lower than would be predicted from clinical trials. Patient age and some histologic factors may predict long-term survival.

    17. Psychological Oncology
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      Social networks and quality of life among female long-term colorectal cancer survivors (pages 1749–1758)

      Amy L. Sapp, Amy Trentham-Dietz, Polly A. Newcomb, John M. Hampton, Carol M. Moinpour and Patrick L. Remington

      Version of Record online: 27 AUG 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11717

      Long-term cancer survivors represent a growing population, yet little is known about how they fare—physically, mentally, or socially. In the current study, the authors found significant associations between social networks and health-related quality of life among female long-term colorectal cancer survivors.

    18. Radiation Oncology
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      Reirradiation and hyperthermia in rectal carcinoma : A retrospective study on palliative effect (pages 1759–1766)

      Jorine H. M. Juffermans, Patrick E. J. Hanssens, Wim L. J. van Putten, Gerard C. van Rhoon and Jacoba van der Zee

      Version of Record online: 12 SEP 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11719

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      Fifty-four patients were treated palliatively with pelvic reirradiation and hyperthermia for recurrent rectal carcinoma. This treatment resulted in good or complete palliation in 72% of patients. The median duration of palliation was 6 months, which was longer compared with radiotherapy alone.

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      A multicenter Phase I safety study of intratumoral photoactivation of talaporfin sodium in patients with refractory solid tumors (pages 1767–1771)

      Robert A. Lustig, Thomas J. Vogl, David Fromm, Rosa Cuenca, R. Alex Hsi, Anil K. D'Cruz, Zdenko Krajina, Marko Turić, Anil Singhal and James C. Chen

      Version of Record online: 21 AUG 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11708

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      A Phase I study of talaporfin sodium that was photoactivated by a minimally invasive intratumoral light device was conducted in patients with refractory tumors. Observed adverse and serious adverse events were minimal and an overall tumor response rate of 33% was observed.

  6. Correspondence

    1. Top of page
    2. Ethics and Law in Oncology
    3. Editorial
    4. Original Articles
    5. Original Article
    6. Original Articles
    7. Correspondence
    1. You have free access to this content
    2. You have free access to this content
      Author reply (pages 1773–1774)

      Huw J. W. Thomas, Isis Dove-Edwin, Sheila Goff and Hans F. A. Vasen

      Version of Record online: 9 SEP 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11705

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      Microsatellite instability and expression of MLH1 and MSH2 in carcinomas of the small intestine (pages 1774–1775)

      Karsten Schulmann, Stephan A. Hahn, Frank Brasch and Wolff Schmiegel

      Version of Record online: 27 AUG 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11706

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      Author reply (pages 1775–1776)

      Maria Planck, Kajsa Ericson, Zofia Piotrowska, Britta Halvarsson, Eva Rambech and Mef Nilbert

      Version of Record online: 27 AUG 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11707

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      Author reply (pages 1777–1778)

      Hagop M. Kantarjian and Jorge Cortes

      Version of Record online: 25 AUG 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11718

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