Because of knowledge gained in the field of cancer biology, clinicians are currently witnessing an explosion of molecular tests as companion diagnostics to targeted therapies against growth factor receptors and their signaling pathways. Such tests are being applied increasingly to cytology specimens as essential components of genomic medicine, because less invasive diagnostic procedures are becoming the norm. The objective of this review was to present an overview of the current and future role of cytopathology in molecular diagnostics, including the adequacy of cytology specimens for such studies. The authors also discuss the critical methodologic aspects of the molecular assays used for the selection of tyrosine kinase treatment for oncology patients. Cancer (Cancer Cytopathol) 2013. © 2012 American Cancer Society.