Vesicular glutamate transporters are responsible for glutamate transport into synaptic vesicles. In the present study, we examined immunohistochemically the expression of vesicular glutamate transporters, VGluT1 and VGluT2, in trigeminal ganglion neurons of the rat. Immunohistochemistry for VGluT1 and VGluT2 indicated that more than 80% of trigeminal ganglion neurons express VGluT1 and/or VGluT2 in their cell bodies. It also indicated that large and small trigeminal ganglion neurons express VGluT2 more frequently than VGluT1. Dual immunofluorescence histochemistry for VGluT1 and VGluT2 indicated that trigeminal ganglion neurons express VGluT2 more frequently than VGluT1 and that more than 80% of VGluT-expressing trigeminal ganglion neurons express VGluT1 and VGluT2. Many axon terminals in the superficial layers of the medullary dorsal horn also showed VGluT1 and VGluT2 immunoreactivities. Some of these axon terminals were confirmed to form the central core of the synaptic glomerulus. These results indicated that VGluT1 and VGluT2 are coexpressed in the cell bodies and axon terminals in most trigeminal ganglion neurons. J. Comp. Neurol. 463:212–220, 2003. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.