A mouse monoclonal antibody (clone 62-2E8) raised against a human recombinant high-affinity choline transporter (CHT)-glutathione-S-transferase fusion protein was used to determine the distribution of immunoreactive profiles containing this protein in the monkey central nervous system (CNS). Within the monkey telencephalon, CHT-immunoreactive perikarya were found in the striatum, nucleus accumbens, medial septum, vertical and horizontal limb nuclei of the diagonal band, nucleus basalis complex, and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. Dense fiber staining was observed within the islands of Calleja, olfactory tubercle, hippocampal complex, amygdala; moderate to light fiber staining was seen in iso- and limbic cortices. CHT-containing fibers were also present in sensory and limbic thalamic nuclei, preoptic and hypothalamic areas, and the floccular lobe of the cerebellum. In the brainstem, CHT-immunoreactive profiles were observed in the pedunculopontine and dorsolateral tegmental nuclei, the Edinger-Westphal, oculomotor, trochlear, trigeminal, abducens, facial, ambiguus, dorsal vagal motor, and hypoglossal nuclei. In the spinal cord, CHT-immunoreactive ventral horn motoneurons were seen in close apposition to intensely immunoreactive C-terminals at the level of the cervical spinal cord. CHT immunostaining revealed a similar distribution of labeled profiles in the aged human brain and spinal cord. Dual fluorescent confocal microscopy revealed that the majority of CHT immunoreactive neurons contained the specific cholinergic marker, choline acetyltransferase, at all levels of the monkey CNS. The present observations indicate that the present CHT antibody labels cholinergic structures within the primate CNS and provides an additional marker for the investigation of cholinergic neuronal function in aging and disease. J. Comp. Neurol. 463:341–357, 2003. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.