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Keywords:

  • premotor cortex;
  • posterior parietal cortex;
  • supplementary motor area;
  • prefrontal cortex;
  • primate evolution;
  • frontal eye field

Abstract

The ipsilateral connections of motor areas of galagos were determined by injecting tracers into primary motor cortex (M1), dorsal premotor area (PMD), ventral premotor area (PMV), supplementary motor area (SMA), and frontal eye field (FEF). Other injections were placed in frontal cortex and in posterior parietal cortex to define the connections of motor areas further. Intracortical microstimulation was used to identify injection sites and map motor areas in the same cases. The major connections of M1 were with premotor cortex, SMA, cingulate motor cortex, somatosensory areas 3a and 1, and the rostral half of posterior parietal cortex. Less dense connections were with the second (S2) and parietal ventral (PV) somatosensory areas. Injections in PMD labeled neurons across a mediolateral belt of posterior parietal cortex extending from the medial wall to lateral to the intraparietal sulcus. Other inputs came from SMA, M1, PMV, and adjoining frontal cortex. PMV injections labeled neurons across a large zone of posterior parietal cortex, overlapping the region projecting to PMD but centered more laterally. Other connections were with M1, PMD, and frontal cortex and sparsely with somatosensory areas 3a, 1–2, S2, and PV. SMA connections were with medial posterior parietal cortex, cingulate motor cortex, PMD, and PMV. An FEF injection labeled neurons in the intraparietal sulcus. Injections in posterior parietal cortex revealed that the rostral half receives somatosensory inputs, whereas the caudal half receives visual inputs. Thus, posterior parietal cortex links visual and somatosensory areas with motor fields of frontal cortex. J. Comp. Neurol. 490:305–333, 2005. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.