The expression of gangliosides is developmentally regulated in the central nervous system. The expression of GM1 in the neural progenitor cells of the telencephalonic ventricular zone (VZ) has been reported in several studies. However, information on the spatial and temporal regulation of GM1 expression in the VZ is still lacking. In this study, we characterized the expression of GM1 in the developing mouse telencephalon. At E13, GM1 is expressed in neuronal cells as well as in the VZ. The initial expression of GM1 in the VZ is restricted to regions close to the medial pallium. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis and characterization of E14 GM1-positive cells showed that they contain progenitor cells that proliferate in response to epidermal growth factor (EGF) and/or basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) stimulation. The results obtained from quantitative gene expression analysis of region-specific genes (Emx1, Lhx2, Ngn1, Ngn2, Pax6, Dlx2, Gsh2, Mash1, and Nkx2.1), using real-time polymerase chain reaction indicate that FACS of GM1-expressing cells in the fetal forebrain enriches for the medial pallial neural progenitor cells. J. Comp. Neurol. 491:330–338, 2005. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.