RC3/neurogranin is a neuron-specific calpacitin located in the cytoplasm and, especially, in dendrites and dendritic spines of cortical neurons, involved in many aspects of excitatory transmission and long-term potentiation. We investigated RC3 expression in pyramidal cortical neurons and interneurons of the motor and somatosensory cortex of normal Macaca fascicularis by means of double immunofluorescence and with techniques that combine immunohistochemistry and radioactive in situ hybridization. We show that RC3 is expressed in virtually all pyramidal neurons and spiny stellate neurons of neocortical areas 4, 3b, 1, 2, 5, 7, and SII, but not in the majority of cortical interneurons. RC3 protein and mRNA are tightly colocalized with the α subunit of CaM kinase II and the 200-kD, nonphosphorylated neurofilament, whereas they are absent from cells expressing the 27-kD, vitamin D-dependent calbindin and parvalbumin. In order to investigate possible activity-dependent regulation of the expression of RC3, we compared these results with those obtained from monkeys subjected to chronic peripheral cutaneous denervation of the first finger. We found that the pattern of distribution of RC3 in motor and somatosensory cortices after nerve cut did not differ from normal. J. Comp. Neurol. 493:554–570, 2005. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.