Although the perirhinal and parahippocampal cortices have been shown to be critically involved in memory processing, the boundaries and extent of these areas have been controversial. To produce a more objective and reproducible description, the architectonic boundaries and structure of the perirhinal (areas 35 and 36) and parahippocampal (areas TF and TH) cortices were analyzed in three macaque species, with four different staining methods [Nissl and immunohistochemistry for parvalbumin, nonphosphorylated neurofilaments (with SMI-32), and the m2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor]. We further correlated the architectonic boundary of the parahippocampal cortex with connections to and from different subregions of anterior area TE and with previously published connections with the prefrontal cortex and temporal pole (Kondo et al.  J. Comp. Neurol. 493:479–509). Together, these data provided a clear delineation of the perirhinal and parahippocampal areas, although it differs from previous descriptions. In particular, we did not extend the perirhinal cortex into the temporal pole, and the lateral boundaries of areas 36 and TF with area TE were placed more medially than in other studies. The lateral boundary of area TF in Macaca fuscata was located more laterally than in Macaca fascicularis or Macaca mulatta, although there was no difference in architectonic structure. We recognized a caudal, granular part of the parahippocampal cortex that we termed “area TFO.” This area closely resembles the laterally adjacent area TE and the caudally adjacent area V4 but is clearly different from the more rostral area TF. These areas are likely to have distinct functions. J. Comp. Neurol. 500:973–1006, 2007. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.