The last two authors contributed equally in co-supervising the project and conducting experiments. The second and last authors began this project originally as part of their graduate theses.
Global view of the functional molecular organization of the avian cerebrum: Mirror images and functional columns
Article first published online: 25 SEP 2013
Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Journal of Comparative Neurology
Volume 521, Issue 16, pages 3614–3665, November 2013
How to Cite
Jarvis, E. D., Yu, J., Rivas, M. V., Horita, H., Feenders, G., Whitney, O., Jarvis, S. C., Jarvis, E. R., Kubikova, L., Puck, A. E.P., Siang-Bakshi, C., Martin, S., McElroy, M., Hara, E., Howard, J., Pfenning, A., Mouritsen, H., Chen, C.-C. and Wada, K. (2013), Global view of the functional molecular organization of the avian cerebrum: Mirror images and functional columns. J. Comp. Neurol., 521: 3614–3665. doi: 10.1002/cne.23404
This research was supported over a 10-year period by grants from the Human Frontiers in Science Program Young Investigators Award, National Science Foundation Alan T. Waterman Award, the NIH Director's Pioneer Award, NIMH grant R01-MH62083, NIDCD grant R01-DC007218, American Recovery and Reinvestment Act NIH supplement 3DP1OD000448-04S1, and HHMI to Erich D. Jarvis. The Oldenburg-related work (G.F., H.M.) was supported by a VW Nachwuchsgruppe grant and a Lichtenberg-professorship grant to H.M.
- Issue published online: 25 SEP 2013
- Article first published online: 25 SEP 2013
- Accepted manuscript online: 1 JUL 2013 10:41PM EST
- Manuscript Accepted: 21 JUN 2013
- Manuscript Revised: 19 JUN 2013
- Manuscript Received: 31 OCT 2012
- brain pathways;
- brain organization;
- neural activity;
- motor behavior;
- primary sensory;
- brain evolution;
- neurotransmitter receptors;
- immediate early genes;
- basal ganglia;
Based on quantitative cluster analyses of 52 constitutively expressed or behaviorally regulated genes in 23 brain regions, we present a global view of telencephalic organization of birds. The patterns of constitutively expressed genes revealed a partial mirror image organization of three major cell populations that wrap above, around, and below the ventricle and adjacent lamina through the mesopallium. The patterns of behaviorally regulated genes revealed functional columns of activation across boundaries of these cell populations, reminiscent of columns through layers of the mammalian cortex. The avian functionally regulated columns were of two types: those above the ventricle and associated mesopallial lamina, formed by our revised dorsal mesopallium, hyperpallium, and intercalated hyperpallium; and those below the ventricle, formed by our revised ventral mesopallium, nidopallium, and intercalated nidopallium. Based on these findings and known connectivity, we propose that the avian pallium has four major cell populations similar to those in mammalian cortex and some parts of the amygdala: 1) a primary sensory input population (intercalated pallium); 2) a secondary intrapallial population (nidopallium/hyperpallium); 3) a tertiary intrapallial population (mesopallium); and 4) a quaternary output population (the arcopallium). Each population contributes portions to columns that control different sensory or motor systems. We suggest that this organization of cell groups forms by expansion of contiguous developmental cell domains that wrap around the lateral ventricle and its extension through the middle of the mesopallium. We believe that the position of the lateral ventricle and its associated mesopallium lamina has resulted in a conceptual barrier to recognizing related cell groups across its border, thereby confounding our understanding of homologies with mammals. J. Comp. Neurol. 521:3614–3665, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.