Differential distribution and energy status–dependent regulation of the four CART neuropeptide genes in the zebrafish brain
Article first published online: 19 APR 2014
Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Journal of Comparative Neurology
Volume 522, Issue 10, pages 2266–2285, 1 July 2014
How to Cite
Akash, G., Kaniganti, T., Tiwari, N. K., Subhedar, N. K. and Ghose, A. (2014), Differential distribution and energy status–dependent regulation of the four CART neuropeptide genes in the zebrafish brain. J. Comp. Neurol., 522: 2266–2285. doi: 10.1002/cne.23532
- Issue published online: 19 APR 2014
- Article first published online: 19 APR 2014
- Accepted manuscript online: 27 DEC 2013 10:21PM EST
- Manuscript Accepted: 20 DEC 2013
- Manuscript Revised: 8 NOV 2013
- Manuscript Received: 16 AUG 2013
- Department of Science and Technology, Government of India . Grant Number: SR/SO/AS-06/2010 to A.G. and N.K.S.
- KVPY fellowship, Government of India (to G.A.)
- INSPIRE fellowship, Government of India (to T.K.)
- CART neuropeptide;
- anorexic agent;
- in situ hybridization;
- energy homeostasis
The cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) neuropeptide has been implicated in the neural regulation of energy homeostasis across vertebrate phyla. By using gene-specific in situ hybridization, we have mapped the distribution of the four CART mRNAs in the central nervous system of the adult zebrafish. The widespread neuronal expression pattern for CART 2 and 4 suggests a prominent role for the peptide in processing sensory information from diverse modalities including olfactory and visual inputs. In contrast, CART 1 and 3 have a much more restricted distribution, predominantly located in the nucleus of the medial longitudinal fasciculus (NMLF) and entopeduncular nucleus (EN), respectively. Enrichment of CART 2 and 4 in the preoptic and tuberal areas emphasizes the importance of CART in neuroendocrine functions. Starvation resulted in a significant decrease in CART-positive cells in the nucleus recessus lateralis (NRL) and nucleus lateralis tuberis (NLT) hypothalamic regions, suggesting a function in energy homeostasis for these neurons. Similarly, the EN emerges as a novel energy status–responsive region. Not only is there abundant and overlapping expression of CART 2, 3, and 4 in the EN, but also starvation induced a decrease in CART-expressing neurons in this region. The cellular resolution mapping of CART mRNA and the response of CART-expressing nuclei to starvation underscores the importance of CART neuropeptide in energy processing. Additionally, the regional and gene-specific responses to energy levels suggest a complex, interactive network whereby the four CART gene products may have nonredundant functions in energy homeostasis. J. Comp. Neurol. 522:2266–2285, 2014. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.