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Cortical innervation of the hypoglossal nucleus in the non-human primate (Macaca mulatta)

Authors

  • Robert J. Morecraft,

    Corresponding author
    1. Division of Basic Biomedical Sciences, Laboratory of Neurological Sciences, The University of South Dakota, Sanford School of Medicine, Vermillion, South Dakota
    • Correspondence to: Robert J. Morecraft, Ph.D., Laboratory of Neurological Sciences, Division of Basic Biomedical Sciences, The University of South Dakota, Sanford School of Medicine, Vermillion, SD 57069. E-mail rmorecra@usd.edu.

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  • Kimberly S. Stilwell-Morecraft,

    1. Division of Basic Biomedical Sciences, Laboratory of Neurological Sciences, The University of South Dakota, Sanford School of Medicine, Vermillion, South Dakota
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  • Kathryn M. Solon-Cline,

    1. Division of Basic Biomedical Sciences, Laboratory of Neurological Sciences, The University of South Dakota, Sanford School of Medicine, Vermillion, South Dakota
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  • Jizhi Ge,

    1. Division of Basic Biomedical Sciences, Laboratory of Neurological Sciences, The University of South Dakota, Sanford School of Medicine, Vermillion, South Dakota
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  • Warren G. Darling

    1. Department of Health and Human Physiology, Motor Control Laboratories, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa
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ABSTRACT

The corticobulbar projection to the hypoglossal nucleus was studied from the frontal, parietal, cingulate, and insular cortices in the rhesus monkey by using high-resolution anterograde tracers and stereology. The hypoglossal nucleus received bilateral input from the face/head region of the primary (M1), ventrolateral pre- (LPMCv), supplementary (M2), rostral cingulate (M3), and caudal cingulate (M4) motor cortices. Additional bilateral corticohypoglossal projections were found from the dorsolateral premotor cortex (LPMCd), ventrolateral proisocortical motor area (ProM), ventrolateral primary somatosensory cortex (S1), rostral insula, and pregenual region of the anterior cingulate gyrus (areas 24/32). Dense terminal projections arose from the ventral region of M1, and moderate projections from LPMCv and rostral part of M2, with considerably fewer hypoglossal projections arising from the other cortical regions. These findings demonstrate that extensive regions of the non-human primate cerebral cortex innervate the hypoglossal nucleus. The widespread and bilateral nature of this corticobulbar connection suggests recovery of tongue movement after cortical injury that compromises a subset of these areas, may occur from spared corticohypoglossal projection areas located on the lateral, as well as medial surfaces of both hemispheres. Since functional imaging studies have shown that homologous cortical areas are activated in humans during tongue movement tasks, these corticobulbar projections may exist in the human brain. J. Comp. Neurol. 522:3456–3484, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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