A total of 27 adult phalangers was employed to investigate the pattern of neocortical projections to the pontine and medullary portions of the brain stem. Lesions restricted to neocortical areas rostral to the orbital sulcus resulted in fiber degeneration which distributed mainly to midline and medial areas of the pontine and medullary reticular formation. The greatest amount of fiber degeneration was located within the superior central nucleus, the nucleus of the pontine raphe, the nucleus pontis centralis oralis and the nucleus pontis centralis caudalis. However, a few degenerating fibers were present within the nucleus gigantocellularis and the magnocellular portion of the medullary raphe. In contrast, lesions which were located just caudal to the orbital sulcus resulted in fiber degeneration chiefly within the more lateral parvocellular reticular formation and within the subnucleus dorsalis of the nucleus medullae oblongatae centralis. In such cases, additional degenerating fibers were present within the dorsal column nuclei and within more medial areas of the reticular formation. In those brains with ventral parietal ablations, degenerating fibers were present within the chief sensory and spinal nuclei of the trigeminal complex and the closely adjacent reticular formation. All of the above neocortical lesions resulted in fiber degeneration within the basilar pontine gray. In those specimens subjected to caudal (striate and peristriate) or ventrocaudal (temporal) lesions, degenerating fibers were present within the basilar pontine gray, but not within other areas of the pons or the medulla oblongata.