Efferent vestibular neurons: A study employing retrograde tracer methods in the pigeon (Columba livia)

Authors

  • Irmgard E. Schwarz,

    1. Laboratory of Otoneurology, Departments of Otolaryngology and Physiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M5S 1A8
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  • Dietrich W. F. Schwarz M.D.,

    Corresponding author
    1. Laboratory of Otoneurology, Departments of Otolaryngology and Physiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M5S 1A8
    • Laboratory of Otoneurology, Department of Otolaryngolgy and Physiology, Medical Sciences Building, Room 7308, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 1A8
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  • John M. Fredrickson,

    1. Laboratory of Otoneurology, Departments of Otolaryngology and Physiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M5S 1A8
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  • Jack P. Landolt

    1. Defence and Civil Institute of Environmental Medicine, Downsview, Ontario, Canada, M3M 3B9
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Abstract

Efferent neurons innervating the vestibular labyrinth and cochlea of the pigeon have been identified by means of a variety of retrograde tracers: [3H]-adenosine (Ad), horseradish peroxidase (HRP), Evan's Blue (EB) and Bisbenzimide (Bb). Discrete injections into individual cristae ampullares of the semicircular canals, into the macula utriculi, or into several of these end organs resulted in similar patterns of neuronal labelling. Efferent vestibular neurons were always found within a small portion of the nucleus reticularis pontis caudalis (RP), ventrolateral to the abducens nucleus on both sides. No systemic difference in the locations of labelled cells was found following injection into different sensory epithelia. Cell counts following injections into individual cristae did not differ significantly from those following injections into all three cristae. The injections into all cristae in both labyrinths yielded cell counts that were much lower than twice the number of cells labelled by injections into the three cristae on one side only. When HRP was injected into the right lateral canal crista and Ad into the right posterior canal crista, a high proportion of neurons was labelled with both compounds (61% of the HRP-labelled cells and 67% of the Ad-labelled cells). Injection of EB into all three cristae on the right side and Bb into all three cristae on the left side produced a smaller percentage of doubly labelled cells (10% of the EB-labelled cells and 6% of the Bb-labelled cells). It is concluded, therefore, that there is a considerable degree of collateralization within one labyrinth. Fewer collaterals of efferent neurons are directed to both labyrinths. Since each semicircular canal represents head rotation in one direction and one plane, it is unlikely that efferents which contact several different movement sensors can provide sensory motor control that is specific for directions and planes of head movements.

Control injections of these tracers into the cochlea yielded labelled cells in a different reticular structure, the nucleus reticularis paragigantocellularis lateralis (Pgc), on both sides, as well as in the RP. It is proposed that the Pgc cells represent cochlear efferents, while the RP neurons are related to the macula lagenae, an otolithic organ of balance in the pigeon.

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