As an essential preliminary to a series of experimental studies of the afferent and efferent connections of the monkey entorhinal cortex, we have carried out a detailed analysis of its cytoarchitectonic organization. Primarily on the basis of features observed in Nissl- and fiber-stained preparations, supplemented with Golgi-stained material and preparations stained for heavy metals by Timm's method and histochemically for acetylcholinesterase, the entorhinal cortex has been divided into seven fields that are named according to their rostrocaudal and mediolateral positions except for one rostrally located field that is named for the prominent input that it receives from the olfactory bulb. At rostral levels, the entorhinal cortex is marked by a number of morphological inhomogeneities. The neurons tend to be organized in patches that are surrounded by large, thick, radially oriented bundles of fibers. At caudal levels, the entorhinal cortex has a more distinctly laminated appearance, reminiscent of that in the neocortex, and most of the neurons and fiber fascicles are arranged in discrete radial columns. The cortical region adjoining the entorhinal cortex laterally, which is commonly known as the “perirhinal cortex,” is in fact composed of two separate fields corresponding to areas 35 and 36 of Brodmann. Area 35 occupies the fundus and part of the lateral aspect of the rhinal sulcus. Area 36 extends from the lateral bank of the rhinal sulcus into the inferior temporal gyrus, where it borders fields TA and TE rostrally, and field TF of the parahippocampal gyrus caudally. The surface extents of each of the entorhinal fields have been determined by making “unfolded” two-dimensional maps of the region and measuring the areas with a computerized digitizing system.