The entorhinal cortex of the monkey: II. Cortical afferents

Authors

  • R. Insausti,

    1. Department of Anatomy, University of Navarra, 31080 Pamplona, Spain
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  • Dr. D. G. Amaral,

    Corresponding author
    1. The Salk Institute for Biological Studies and The Clayton Foundation for Research-California Division, San Diego, California 92138
    • Developmental Neurology Laboratory, The Salk Institute, P.O. Box 85800, San Diego, CA 92138
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  • W. M. Cowan

    1. The Salk Institute for Biological Studies and The Clayton Foundation for Research-California Division, San Diego, California 92138
    Current affiliation:
    1. Washington University School of Medicine, Box 8075, 660 South Euclid Ave., St. Louis, MO 63110
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Abstract

The entorhinal cortex of the monkey is commonly viewed as the major link between the cerebral cortex and the other fields of the hippocampal formation. Until recently, however, little was known about the origins of the cortical projections to the entorhinal cortex, and most of the available information is still based on degeneration studios. We have carried out a systematic analysis of these connections by placing small injections of the retrograde tracer wheat germ agglutinin conjugated to horseradish peroxidase into each of the fields of the entorhinal cortex of the Macaca fascicularis monkey, Retrograde labeled cells were observed in several areas of the frontal and temporal lobes, the insula, and the cingulate cortex. In the frontal lobe, the greatest number of labeled cells were observed in the orbital region and specifically in areas 13 and 13a: labeled cells were also seen in areas 14, 11, and 12. In the dorsolateral frontal cortex, labeled cells were observed mainly in the rostral half of area 46; occasionally cells were also seen in areas 9, 8, and 6. In the cingulate cortex, labeled cells were observed in area 25, area 32, and rostral levels of area 24; fewer cells were observed at caudal levels of area 24 or in area 23. The retrosplenial region (areas 30 and 29), including its caudal extension along the rostral calcarine sulcus and its ventral extension into the temporal lobe, contained numerous labeled cells. In the temporal lobe, retrogradely labeled cells were arranged in two rostrocaudally oriented bands. Rostral to the hippocampal formation, the first band encompassed the priform and periamygdaloid cortices and areas 35 and 36; the labeling in area 36 was continuous to the temporal pole. At more caudal levels this band was located immediately lateral to the hippocampal formation and included areas 35 and 36 rostrally and areas TH and TF caudally. The second band was situated in the superior temporal gyrus where labeled cells were observed in several distinct cytoarchitectonic fields, including the parainsular cortex in the fundus of the inferior limiting sulcus. In the insula proper, retrogradely labeled cells were seen mainly in the rostral or agranular division; far fewer were observed in the dysgranular and granular insula. Whereas there is little available physiological information concerning many of the cortical regions that project to the entorhinal cortex, on anatomical grounds they may be generally characterized as poly sensory associational regions.

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