In the rufous horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus rouxi), the superior olivary complex contains four main divisions. In comparison with other species, the most lateral division is clearly homologous to the lateral superior olive (LSO); the most medial division is homologous to the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB). Lying between these landmarks, in approximately the position of the medial superior olive (MSO) of other mammals, are two additional divisions that are cytoarchitecturally distinct from one another yet do not greatly resemble the MSO of nonecholocating mammals such as the cat. We refer to these nuclei as the dorsal medial superior olive (DMSO) and the ventral medial superior olive (VMSO). We examined the afferent and efferent connections of all of these cell groups with retrograde and anterograde transport of WGA-HRP from the superior olivary complex. In the same animals we recorded the binaural response properties of single units in the superior olivary complex. Virtually all units recorded in LSO were excitatory to the ipsilateral ear and inhibitory to the contralateral ear (EI); all of the units sampled in the MNTB and most of those sampled in the VMSO responded only to the contralateral ear (OE). In DMSO the binaural properties of units were varied: the number of units that were inhibitory to the ipsilateral ear and excitatory to the contralateral ear (IE) was about equal to the number of units excitatory to both ears (EE); a few units had OE responses; no units had EI responses. Connectional correlates for these binaural response properties are seen in the patterns of retrograde transport from WGA-HRP injections in the divisions of the superior olive. The LSO receives projections from the ipsilateral cochlear nucleus and MNTB; MNTB receives projections from the contralateral cochlear nucleus. The DMSO and VMSO both receive bilateral projections from the cochlear nuclei. The results of retrograde and anterograde transport suggest that VMSO, in addition, receives projections from the ipsilateral MNTB. The LSO, DMSO, and VMSO all project to the ventral two-thirds of the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus, and their targets are approximately coextensive. However, the LSO projects bilaterally to the inferior colliculus, whereas the medial cell groups project mainly ipsilaterally.