Prolonged sojourn of developing pyramidal cells in the intermediate zone of the hippocampus and their settling in the stratum pyramidale

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Abstract

In radiograms of rat embryos that received a single dose of [3H] thymidine between days E16 and E20 and were killed 24 hours after the injection, the heavily labeled cells (those that ceased to multiply soon after the injection) form a horizontal layer in the intermediate zone of the hippocampus, called the inferior band. The fate of these heavily labeled cells was traced in radiograms of the dorsal hippocampus in embryos that received [3H] thymidine on day E18 and were killed at different intervals thereafter. Two hours after injection the labeled proliferative cells are located in the Ammonic neuroepithelium. The heavily labeled cells that leave the neuroepithelium and aggregate in the inferior band 1 day after the injection become progressively displaced toward the stratum pyramidale 2–3 days later, and penetrate the stratum pyramidale of the CA1 region on the 4th day. In the stratum pyramidale of the CA3 region, farther removed from the Ammonic neuroepithelium, the heavily labeled cells are still sojourning in the intermediate zone 4 days after labeling.

Observations in methacrylate sections suggest that two morphogenetic features of the developing hippocampus may contribute to the long sojourn of young pyramidal cells in the intermediate zone: the way in which the stratum pyramidale forms and the way in which the alveolar channels develop. The stratum pyramidale of the CA1 region forms before that of the CA3 region, which is the reverse of the neurogenetic gradient in the production of pyramidal cells. We hypothesize that this is so because the pyramidal cells destined to settle in the CA3 region, which will be contacted by granule cells axons (the mossy fibers), have to await the formation of the granular layer on days E21–E22. Concordant with this is the observation that the hippocampal intermediate zone, which contains the sojourning young pyramidal cells, greatly enlarges between days E16 and E20, then suddenly diminishes and disappears by day E22. The other factor that may contribute to the prolonged sojourn of pyramidal cells, specifically those destined to settle in the CA1 region, is the pattern of alveolar channel development. This transient extracellular matrix begins to form several days after the onset of pyramidal cell neurogenesis, grows in a direction opposite to the settling of pyramidal cells in the stratum pyramidale, and does not reach the subicular end of Ammon's horn until day E21. We postulate that the CA1 pyramidal cells may have to wait in the intermediate zone for the formation of the alveolar channels, which are gradually filled with axons (as yet of unknown origin), before they can settle in the stratum pyramidale.

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