Considerable debate exists regarding the cellular source of prostaglandins in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). At least two forms of prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase, or cyclooxygenase (COX), the principal enzyme in the biosynthesis of these mediators, are known to exist. Both forms have been identified in the CNS, but only the distribution of COX 1 has been mapped in detail. In this study, we used Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry to describe the biochemical characterization and anatomical distribution of the second, mitogen-inducible form of this enzyme, COX 2 in the rat brain.
COX 2-like immunoreactive (COX 2-ir) staining occurred in dendrites and cell bodies of neurons, structures that are typically postsynaptic. It was noted in distinct portions of specific cortical laminae and subcortical nuclei. The distribution in the CNS was quite different from COX 1. COX 2-ir neurons were primarily observed in the cortex and allocortical structures, such as the hippocampal formation and amygdala. Within the amygdala, neurons were primarily observed in the caudal and posterior part of the deep and cortical nuclei. In the diencephalon, COX 2–ir cells were also observed in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus and in the nuclei of the anteroventral region surrounding the third ventricle, including the vascular organ of the lamina terminalis. COX 2–ir neurons were also observed in the subparafascicular nucleus, the medial zona incerta, and pretectal area. In the brainstem, COX 2-ir neurons were observed in the dorsal raphe nucleus, the nucleus of the brachium, of the inferior colliculus, and in the region of the subcoeruleus. The distribution of COX 2-ir neurons in the CNS suggests that COX 2 may be involved in processing and integration of visceral and special sensory input and in elaboration of the autonomic, endocrine, and behavioral responses.