Journal of Comparative Neurology

Cover image for Vol. 521 Issue 10

1 July 2013

Volume 521, Issue 10

Pages Spc1–Spc1, 2181–2397

  1. Cover Image

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Image
    3. Research Articles
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      In vivo characterization of a bigenic fluorescent mouse model of Alzheimer's disease with neurodegeneration (page Spc1)

      Sarah E. Crowe and Graham C.R. Ellis-Davies

      Article first published online: 19 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/cne.23336

      We have used longitudinal in vivo two-photon microscopy to study a new bigenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (5xFAD-YFP) that exhibits massive loss of fluorescently labeled layer 5 pyramidal neurons. Imaging of this transgenic mouse enabled the study of spine stability 500-600 μm below the pia mater, progressive atrophy of axons, appearance and growth of amyloid plaques, and eventual loss of neocortical pyramidal neurons.

  2. Research Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Image
    3. Research Articles
    1. In vivo characterization of a bigenic fluorescent mouse model of Alzheimer's disease with neurodegeneration (pages 2181–2194)

      Sarah E. Crowe and Graham C.R. Ellis-Davies

      Article first published online: 19 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/cne.23306

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      We have used longitudinal in vivo two-photon microscopy to study a new bigenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (5xFAD-YFP) that exhibits massive loss of fluorescently labeled layer 5 pyramidal neurons. Imaging of this transgenic mouse enabled the study of spine stability 500-600 μm below the pia mater, progressive atrophy of axons, appearance and growth of amyloid plaques, and eventual loss of neocortical pyramidal neurons.

    2. Evidence for a regional specificity in the density and distribution of noradrenergic varicosities in rat cortex (pages 2195–2207)

      Kara L. Agster, Carlos A. Mejias-Aponte, Brian D. Clark and Barry D. Waterhouse

      Article first published online: 19 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/cne.23270

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      The conventional view has been that norepinephrine (NE)-containing projections from the locus coeruleus (LC) are uniform across the cortical mantle. Although NE fiber density may be equivalent among regions, the density of NE varicosities is not uniform. We found that NE varicosities are greater in the prefrontal cortex than in the motor, somatosensory, or piriform cortices. This suggests that activation of the LC may produce a differential release of NE across the cortex, with the greatest amounts of NE released within the prefrontal cortex.

    3. Neurochemical characterization of neurons expressing melanin-concentrating hormone receptor 1 in the mouse hypothalamus (pages 2208–2234)

      Melissa J.S. Chee, Pavlos Pissios and Eleftheria Maratos-Flier

      Article first published online: 19 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/cne.23273

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      Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is an orexigenic neuropeptide that acts on MCH receptors 1 (MCHR1) in rodents. This study uses the Mchr1-cre/tdTomato mouse to readily identify MCHR1-expressing neurons by red fluorescence. We found that MCHR1 is expressed in different cell types throughout the hypothalamus. Thus we provide a neuroanatomical basis for MCH to regulate neuroendocrine and autonomic functions, including energy balance and appetite.

    4. Glucagon-like peptide-1 in the rat brain: Distribution of expression and functional implication (pages 2235–2261)

      Guibao Gu, Barbara Roland, Kevin Tomaselli, Carrie S. Dolman, Carolyn Lowe and Joseph S. Heilig

      Article first published online: 19 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/cne.23282

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      Glucagon-like-peptide 1 (GLP-1) is not only secreted by gut endocrine cells but also expressed in a small number of neurons in the caudal brainstem. These neurons send massive outputs to other areas of the brain, particularly forebrain, that are known to be involved in metabolic homeostasis. Peripheral administration of GLP-1 receptor agonist does not appear to activate GLP-1-containing neurons directly, but activates areas in the forebrain where abundant GLP-1-containing terminals are found, suggesting central GLP-1-mediated activity is independent of peripheral GLP-1.

    5. Neurogenesis is required for behavioral recovery after injury in the visual system of Xenopus laevis (pages 2262–2278)

      Caroline R. McKeown, Pranav Sharma, Heidi E. Sharipov, Wanhua Shen and Hollis T. Cline

      Article first published online: 19 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/cne.23283

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      Although amphibians are known for their regenerative response to brain injury, it is unclear whether recovery of behavioral deficits requires neurogenesis. We report that focal injury of the optic tectum Xenopus tadpoles prevents behavioral avoidance to moving stimuli, yet animals recover after one week. Injury induces proliferation of tectal progenitors that generate neurons. Blocking cell proliferation inhibits recovery, and changes in visual experience that increase neurogenesis facilitate recovery, indicating that neurogenesis is critical for recovery of visually-guided behavior after injury.

    6. NMDA-like receptors in the nervous system of the crab Neohelice granulata: A neuroanatomical description (pages 2279–2297)

      Yanil Hepp, Martín Carbó Tano, María Eugenia Pedreira and Ramiro A.M. Freudenthal

      Article first published online: 19 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/cne.23285

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      This study describes the distribution of the NMDA receptor subunit NR-1 and its characterization in the main ganglia of the central nervous system of the crab Neohelice granulata, including the eyestalk ganglia, central brain and thoracic ganglion. This receptor is a key component involved in memory storage in all species studied. Much of the work performed regarding memory storage in this crab indicates that the central brain is an important structure in this process and the focus of our description.

    7. Androgen receptors mediate masculinization of astrocytes in the rat posterodorsal medial amygdala during puberty (pages 2298–2309)

      Ryan T. Johnson, S. Marc Breedlove and Cynthia L. Jordan

      Article first published online: 19 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/cne.23286

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      Astrocytes in a portion of the rodent amygdala are sexually dimorphic in number and arbor complexity. These sex differences emerge at different times during the lifespan through both androgen-dependent and -independent processes. Given their role in synapse formation, this may reflect a “rewiring” of the amygdala during critical periods.

    8. Pre-target axon sorting in the avian auditory brainstem (pages 2310–2320)

      Daniel T. Kashima, Edwin W Rubel and Armin H. Seidl

      Article first published online: 19 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/cne.23287

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      Combining multicell and single-cell labeling with a whole-brainstem imaging technique, the authors show topographic axon arrangement in the avian auditory brainstem. This pre-target axon sorting might contribute to tonotopic map formation in the auditory system.

    9. Site of origin of and sex differences in the vasopressin innervation of the mouse (Mus musculus) brain (pages 2321–2358)

      Benjamin D. Rood, Ryan T. Stott, Samantha You, Caroline J.W. Smith, Maya E. Woodbury and Geert J. De Vries

      Article first published online: 19 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/cne.23288

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      The neuropeptide vasopressin is produced in multiple distinct neuronal populations implicated in a wide variety of functions. Our study identifies, in the mouse, the unique pathways of steroid-sensitive vasopressin projections implicated in social behavior; the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)-derived projections involved in circadian rhythms; and the non-SCN hypothalamic projections that help regulate physiological homeostasis. This vasopressin roadmap will provide direction to future researchers in the quest to understand the unique neural mechanisms involved in complex behavioral and physiological processes.

    10. Corticospinal sprouting occurs selectively following dorsal rhizotomy in the macaque monkey (pages 2359–2372)

      Corinna Darian-Smith, Alayna Lilak and Christina Alarcón

      Article first published online: 19 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/cne.23289

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      The corticospinal tract in the macaque and human originates from at least nine separate cortical regions, and is the major descending pathway mediating volitional hand movements. Here we compared primary motor and somatosensory corticospinal subcomponents in the recovery process several months following a unilateral cervical dorsal rhizotomy in macaques. Our findings show a very different response from each cortical region, indicating that each plays a very different role post injury. Our findings also indicate that the corticospinal tract response to spinal cord injury is considerably more complex than is generally recognized.

    11. Forebrain GABAergic projections to locus coeruleus in mouse (pages 2373–2397)

      Eugene L. Dimitrov, Yuchio Yanagawa and Ted B. Usdin

      Article first published online: 19 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/cne.23291

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      We mapped mouse forebrain projections to the brainstem locus ceruleus, focusing on GABAergic projection neurons. Major GABAergic projections arise in the central amygdala and posterior lateral hypothalamus. These projections largely terminate outside the cellular core but form direct connections with the noradrenergic neurons based on transfer of viral tracer.

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