Journal of Comparative Neurology

Cover image for Vol. 521 Issue 6

15 April 2013

Volume 521, Issue 6

Pages Spc1–Spc1, 1203–1448

  1. Cover Image

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Image
    3. Editorial
    4. Research Articles
    1. You have free access to this content
  2. Editorial

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Image
    3. Editorial
    4. Research Articles
    1. You have free access to this content
      A website entitled “The fine structure of the aging brain” (pages 1203–1206)

      Alan Peters and Claire Folger

      Article first published online: 20 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/cne.23280

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      Rhesus monkeys offer a strong comparative model for the effects of aging on the human brain, and The Journal of Comparative Neurology is grateful to have the opportunity to feature a unique resource from one of the world's leading authorities on the synaptic and cellular basis of age-related cognitive decline. The 130 high resolution electron micrographs from aging rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta), provided by Alan Peters and his colleague, Claire Folger, represent 20 years of detailed study, and are a valuable instrument to help gain better insight into the effects of normal aging on the neurons and neuroglial cells in the cerebral hemispheres and associated fiber tracts of the forebrain.

  3. Research Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Image
    3. Editorial
    4. Research Articles
    1. Activity and coexpression of Drosophila black with ebony in fly optic lobes reveals putative cooperative tasks in vision that evade electroretinographic detection (pages 1207–1224)

      Anna B. Ziegler, Florian Brüsselbach and Bernhard T. Hovemann

      Article first published online: 20 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/cne.23247

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      The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of aspartate decarboxylase Black compared with β-alanyl synthase Ebony in visual signal transduction. We confirm the necessity of histamine neurotransmitter recycling via carcinine rather than direct uptake into photoreceptor axonal endings, but β-alanine supply is a key question with regard to the pathway. To elucidate a putative contribution of Black, we characterized its function and determined its expression in the visual system.

    2. Distribution and intrinsic membrane properties of basal forebrain GABAergic and parvalbumin neurons in the mouse (pages 1225–1250)

      James T. McKenna, Chun Yang, Serena Franciosi, Stuart Winston, Kathleen K. Abarr, Matthew S. Rigby, Yuchio Yanagawa, Robert W. McCarley and Ritchie E. Brown

      Article first published online: 20 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/cne.23290

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      The basal forebrain (BF) controls cortical activation, sleep homeostasis and attention. Many BF neurons involved in these processes are GABAergic, including a subpopulation of projection neurons containing the calcium binding protein, parvalbumin (PV). Here, we: (i) Validate novel genetic tools to investigate BF GABAergic and PV+ neurons; (ii) Provide the first comprehensive mapping of the distribution of GABAergic and PV+ neurons in the mouse; and (iii) Determine the intrinsic membrane properties of identified BF GABAergic and PV+ neurons. Figure legend: GFP selectively labels GABAergic neurons, but not cholinergic (ChAT+) neurons, in the BF of GAD67-GFP knock-in mice. Scale bar for top panels = 20 μm, bottom panels = 25 μm.

    3. Functional and neurochemical development in the normal and degenerating mouse retina (pages 1251–1267)

      Riki Gibson, Erica L. Fletcher, Algis J. Vingrys, Yuan Zhu, Kirstan A. Vessey and Michael Kalloniatis

      Article first published online: 20 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/cne.23284

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      This study examined electrophysiological characteristics and amino acid neurochemistry in the normal (C57Bl6) and degenerating (rd1) mouse retina from early development through eye-opening to early adult age. ERG components reach maturity at approximately P30, well after amino acid neurochemistry has reached maturity. The rd1 retina displays abnormal rod responses but normal cone ERG responses at P18. After this age, a dramatic reduction occurs in the cone responses and marked reductions in amino acid levels are seen in the rd1 retina.

    4. Genetic labeling of steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1) neurons in mice reveals ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH) circuitry beginning at neurogenesis and development of a separate non-SF-1 neuronal cluster in the ventrolateral VMH (pages 1268–1288)

      Clement C. Cheung, Deborah M. Kurrasch, Jenna K. Liang and Holly A. Ingraham

      Article first published online: 20 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/cne.23226

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      Ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH) projections were genetically traced in the developing mouse by using a knock-in approach (Sf-1TauGFP) or by using an SF-1 Cre-driver (Z/EGSf-1:Cre) to express GFP. VMH projections begin at the onset of neurogenesis and closely resemble pathways previously mapped in the adult rat. Although neurons in the VMHVL are derived from the SF-1 lineage as shown in the Z/EGSf-1:Cre reporter, they adopt a distinct, SF-1-negative cell fate after midgestation, as shown in the Sf-1TauGFP reporter.

    5. Subcortical auditory structures in the mongolian gerbil: I. Golgi architecture (pages 1289–1321)

      Judith Mylius, Michael Brosch, Henning Scheich and Eike Budinger

      Article first published online: 20 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/cne.23232

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      The Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) has become a frequently used animal model in auditory neuroscience. Here, we investigated the cyto- and fiberarchitecture of the subcortical auditory pathway in this species by means of the Golgi-Cox and Nissl methods. We describe the divisions, subdivisions and most conspicuous neuronal cell types of the auditory thalamus (medial geniculate body, suprageniculate nucleus, reticular thalamic nucleus), inferior colliculi as well as nuclei of the lateral lemniscus, superior olivary complex and cochlear nuclear complex.

    6. Regional astrogliosis in the mouse hypothalamus in response to obesity (pages 1322–1333)

      Laura B. Buckman, Misty M. Thompson, Heidi N. Moreno and Kate L.J. Ellacott

      Article first published online: 20 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/cne.23233

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      In response to CNS challenge astrocytes undergo a process of hypertrophy and hyperplasia called reactive astrogliosis. We examined the differential distribution of the astrocyte marker glial-fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in the brains of diet-induced or genetically obese mice compared with lean controls. Areas that showed the highest differential GFAP-immunoreactivity between lean and obese animals include the medial preoptic, paraventricular and dorsomedial nuclei. The consequences of obesity-associated astrogliosis are undetermined but likely have wide-ranging implications for metabolism and other neuroendocrine axes.

    7. Synaptic alterations in the rTg4510 mouse model of tauopathy (pages 1334–1353)

      Katherine J. Kopeikina, Manuela Polydoro, Hwan-Ching Tai, Erich Yaeger, George A. Carlson, Rose Pitstick, Bradley T. Hyman and Tara L. Spires-Jones

      Article first published online: 20 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/cne.23234

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      In Alzheimer Disease (AD), the role of tau in synapse loss remains largely undetermined. Here we test the hypothesis that human mutant tau over-expression in a mouse model will lead to age-dependent synaptic loss and dysfunction. Array tomography and two methods of quantification demonstrate preservation of overall synapse density in the neuropil, while multi-photon in vivo imaging shows close to 30% loss of apical dendritic spines. Biochemical analyses of remaining synapses suggest loss of synaptic components likely indicating concomitant dysfunction.

    8. Confocal laser scanning microscopy and ultrastructural study of VGLUT2 thalamic input to striatal projection neurons in rats (pages 1354–1377)

      Wanlong Lei, Yunping Deng, Bingbing Liu, Shuhua Mu, Natalie M. Guley, Ting Wong and Anton Reiner

      Article first published online: 20 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/cne.23235

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      We found that cortical terminals account for 60% of the excitatory input to rat striatum, and thalamic terminals account for 40%. The image shows the relative abundances of VGLUT1+ cortical (green) and VGLUT2 thalamic (magenta) terminals in striatum as viewed by confocal microscopy. The majority of VGLUT2+ thalamic terminals (66.8%) synapse on spines and the remainder on dendrites. The VGLUT2+ terminals showed a slight, but significant tendency to end preferentially on the spines and dendrites of D1+ direct pathway neurons.

      Corrected by:

      Erratum: Confocal laser scanning microscopy and ultrastructural study of VGLUT2 thalamic input to striatal projection neurons in rats

      Vol. 521, Issue 11, 2644, Article first published online: 22 FEB 2014

    9. Evolutionary divergence of trigeminal nerve somatotopy in amniotes (pages 1378–1394)

      Muriel Rhinn, Kanako Miyoshi, Aki Watanabe, Masahumi Kawaguchi, Fumihiro Ito, Shigeru Kuratani, Clare V.H. Baker, Yasunori Murakami and Filippo M. Rijli

      Article first published online: 20 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/cne.23236

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      To investigate the somatotopic conservation in amniote evolution, we compared trigeminal nerve somatotopy in turtles, birds, and mice. Our results suggest that while the basic developmental and molecular mechanisms underlying the wiring of distinct facial regions into the brain are conserved, the fine spatial organization of trigeminal ganglion and target hindbrain trigeminal nuclei has undergone several changes during the course of amniote evolution.

    10. Delayed amyloid plaque deposition and behavioral deficits in outcrossed AβPP/PS1 mice (pages 1395–1408)

      Brian A. Couch, Meghan E. Kerrisk, Adam C. Kaufman, Haakon B. Nygaard, Stephen M. Strittmatter and Anthony J. Koleske

      Article first published online: 20 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/cne.23239

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      Transgenic mice expressing mutant forms of amyloid-β precursor protein (AβPP) and presenilin-1 (PS1) recapitulate several aspects of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here we show using Thioflavin-S staining that outcrossed AβPP/PS1 mice have lower hippocampal amyloid plaque burden than inbred C57BL/6 AβPP/PS1 mice at 12 months. Furthermore, outcrossed AβPP/PS1 mice have delayed memory-based behavioral impairments and AβPP processing. These data suggest that genetic elements present in certain mouse strains can significantly delay the onset of AD-like pathology and behavior.

    11. A quantitative analysis of branching, growth cone turning, and directed growth in zebrafish retinotectal axon guidance (pages 1409–1429)

      Hugh D. Simpson, Elizabeth M. Kita, Ethan K. Scott and Geoffrey J. Goodhill

      Article first published online: 20 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/cne.23248

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      When imaging zebrafish retinotectal axon targeting on the tectum, we found growth cones moving with mostly straight trajectories without turning. Instead, axons navigated through dynamic branching, with a bias for branches directed towards their target region. These results suggest that selective branching during initial pathfinding may be a ubiquitous feature of guidance during retinotectal / retinocollicular map formation across a range of species, not just birds and mammals.

    12. Specializations of intercellular junctions are associated with the presence and absence of hair cell regeneration in ears from six vertebrate classes (pages 1430–1448)

      Joseph C. Burns, Maria Sol Collado, Eric R. Oliver and Jeffrey T. Corwin

      Article first published online: 20 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/cne.23250

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      Images of phalloidin-labeled vestibular organs show that the inner ear supporting cells in anamniotes, turtles, and birds, which regenerate hair cells throughout life, retain thin circumferential F-actin belts at their junctions into adulthood. Divergent junctional specializations appear to have arisen independently in the supporting cells of Anolis lizards and mammals. The wide, but porous webs of F-actin in Anolis appear to permit supporting cell proliferation, whereas the solid reinforcement of the F-actin belts in mammals is associated with its absence.