• modeling;
  • vascular tree;
  • hemodynamics;
  • fractal


In this paper, methods for the modeling of a realistic vascular tree in 3D space and for hemodynamic calculating throughout the simulated tree structure have been developed. Vascular trees are generated based on the power law relationship. Variations in branching asymmetry and segment length of the vasculature are precisely controlled by the designed Gaussian distributions. The resolution limit of current imaging techniques for vessel detectability is simulated by designed pruning technique. On the basis of the generated diameters and lengths, the space locations of the vessel segments are calculated by optimizing the out-of-plane angles of two daughter branches. The generated vascular tree not only follows the power law relationship, but also maximizes the filling volume of the tree structure in 3D space. From the hemodynamic calculation in the simulated vasculature, the processes for which structural changes affect hemodynamic distributions are studied in detail. And also, the fractal nature and resistance of the vascular trees are quantified and compared. The developed method provides some insight into the design of the vascular trees in biology and may be used as a reference for the study of vascular diseases. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.