In this paper, we establish an isoperimetric inequality in a metric measure space via the Poisson equation. Let (X,d,μ) be a complete, pathwise connected metric space with locally Ahlfors Q-regular measure, where Q > 1, that supports a local L2-Poincaré inequality. We show that, for the Poisson equation Δu = g, if the local L∞-norm of the gradient Du can be bounded by the Lorentz norm LQ,1 of g, then we obtain an isoperimetric inequality and a Sobolev inequality in (X,d,μ) with optimal exponents. By assuming a suitable curvature lower bound, we establish such optimal bounds on . © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.