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Keywords:

  • energy consumption;
  • 3D streaming;
  • supplying partner selection;
  • mobile augmented reality

SUMMARY

In recent years, three-dimensional (3D) streaming over thin mobile devices has received very little attention from the research community. The 3D streaming-based class of applications uses either a centralized or a distributed approach. whereas the former presents several drawbacks such as latency, server's bottleneck, and networks congestion; the latter, that is, peer-to-peer, has to deal with the supplying partner issue that consists in selecting the source that will be responsible for streaming the required 3D data. Given that frequent 3D streaming overuses the mobile device's resources and dissipates its energy, the energy factor should be taken into consideration during the selection of the supplier. In this paper, we propose two energy management control protocols for supplying partner selection in peer-to-peer 3D streaming that we refer to as one-level energy-based and two-level energy-based. We also propose a new source load estimator that takes into account two factors namely the source's residual energy and its number of served requests. In one-level energy-based, the requester uses the source's load information to prioritize the sources in an ascending order and distribute the requests starting with the least loaded sources. In two-level energy-based, both the requester and the supplier have important and complementary roles and participate in the energy management control. We then report on the performance evaluation of our energy management control protocols using an extensive set of simulation experiments with the NS2 tool. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.