Self-adaptive workload classification and forecasting for proactive resource provisioning


Correspondence to: Nikolas Roman Herbst, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Am Fasanengarten 5, 76131 Karlsruhe, Germany.



As modern enterprise software systems become increasingly dynamic, workload forecasting techniques are gaining an importance as a foundation for online capacity planning and resource management. Time series analysis offers a broad spectrum of methods to calculate workload forecasts based on history monitoring data. Related work in the field of workload forecasting mostly concentrates on evaluating specific methods and their individual optimisation potential or on predicting QoS metrics directly. As a basis, we present a survey on established forecasting methods of the time series analysis concerning their benefits and drawbacks and group them according to their computational overheads. In this paper, we propose a novel self-adaptive approach that selects suitable forecasting methods for a given context based on a decision tree and direct feedback cycles together with a corresponding implementation. The user needs to provide only his general forecasting objectives. In several experiments and case studies based on real-world workload traces, we show that our implementation of the approach provides continuous and reliable forecast results at run-time. The results of this extensive evaluation show that the relative error of the individual forecast points is significantly reduced compared with statically applied forecasting methods, for example, in an exemplary scenario on average by 37%. In a case study, between 55 and 75% of the violations of a given service level objective can be prevented by applying proactive resource provisioning based on the forecast results of our implementation. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.