Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) revealing metallic or semiconductive properties depending on the folding modes of the nanotube walls represent a novel class of nanowires. Different methods to separate semiconductive CNTs from conductive CNTs have been developed, and synthetic strategies to chemically modify the side walls or tube ends by molecular or biomolecular components have been reported. Tailoring hybrid systems consisting of CNTs and biomolecules (proteins and DNA) has rapidly expanded and attracted substantial research effort. The integration of biomaterials with CNTs enables the use of the hybrid systems as active field-effect transistors or biosensor devices (enzyme electrodes, immunosensors, or DNA sensors). Also, the integration of CNTs with biomolecules has allowed the generation of complex nanostructures and nanocircuitry of controlled properties and functions. The rapid progress in this interdisciplinary field of CNT-based nanobioelectronics and nanobiotechnology is reviewed by summarizing the present scientific accomplishments, and addressing the future goals and perspectives of the area.