The equation of state of an open system containing water in an electric field of strength E greater than 108V m−1leads to a phase diagram with two-phase and single-phase regions in the Π,E,T coordinates (Π=electrostriction pressure). The phases differ by their degree of orientation of H2O molecules in the field. The phase transition is discontinuous with respect to E. The calculation shows that the discontinuity vanishes at the critical point: Πc≈0.2 GPa, Ec≈109V m−1andbelow 313 K. The thermal effect of the transition is calculated and compared with an experiment at the Hg/aqueous electrolyte interface found in the literature.
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