Herein, we focus on the principles of photoconduction in random semiconductors—the key processes being optical generation of charge carriers and their subsequent transport. This is not an overview of the current work in this area, but rather a highlight of elementary processes, their involvement in modern devices and a summary of recent developments and achievements. Experimental results and models are discussed briefly to visualize the mechanism of optical charge generation in pure and doped organic solids. We show current limits of models based on the Onsager theory of charge generation. After the introduction of experimental techniques to characterize charge transport, the hopping concept for transport in organic semiconductors is outlined. The peculiarities of the transport of excitons and charges in disorderd organic semiconductors are highlighted. Finally, a short discussion of ultrafast transport and single chain transport completes the review.