Interactions between Catalysts and Amphiphilic Structures and their Implications for a Protocell Model

Authors

  • Dr. Sarah E. Maurer,

    1. Center for Fundamental Living Technology, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, 5000 Odense C (Denmark), Fax: (+45) 6615-8760
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  • Dr. Michael S. DeClue,

    1. Materials Physics and Applications Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (USA)
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  • Anders N. Albertsen,

    1. Center for Fundamental Living Technology, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, 5000 Odense C (Denmark), Fax: (+45) 6615-8760
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  • Dr. Mark Dörr,

    1. Center for Fundamental Living Technology, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, 5000 Odense C (Denmark), Fax: (+45) 6615-8760
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  • Dr. David S. Kuiper,

    1. Materials Physics and Applications Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (USA)
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  • Dr. Hans Ziock,

    1. Earth and Environmental Sciences, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (USA)
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  • Dr. Steen Rasmussen,

    1. Center for Fundamental Living Technology, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, 5000 Odense C (Denmark), Fax: (+45) 6615-8760
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  • Dr. James M. Boncella,

    1. Materials Physics and Applications Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (USA)
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  • Dr. Pierre-Alain Monnard

    Corresponding author
    1. Center for Fundamental Living Technology, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, 5000 Odense C (Denmark), Fax: (+45) 6615-8760
    • Center for Fundamental Living Technology, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, 5000 Odense C (Denmark), Fax: (+45) 6615-8760
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Abstract

One of the essential elements of any cell, including primitive ancestors, is a structural component that protects and confines the metabolism and genes while allowing access to essential nutrients. For the targeted protocell model, bilayers of decanoic acid, a single-chain fatty acid amphiphile, are used as the container. These bilayers interact with a ruthenium–nucleobase complex, the metabolic complex, to convert amphiphile precursors into more amphiphiles. These interactions are dependent on non-covalent bonding. The initial rate of conversion of an oily precursor molecule into fatty acid was examined as a function of these interactions. It is shown that the precursor molecule associates strongly with decanoic acid structures. This results in a high dependence of conversion rates on the interaction of the catalyst with the self-assembled structures. The observed rate logically increases when a tight interaction between catalyst complex and container exists. A strong association between the metabolic complex and the container was achieved by bonding a sufficiently long hydrocarbon tail to the complex. Surprisingly, the rate enhancement was nearly as strong when the ruthenium and nucleobase elements of the complex were each given their own hydrocarbon tail and existed as separate molecules, as when the two elements were covalently bonded to each other and the resulting molecule was given a hydrocarbon tail. These results provide insights into the possibilities and constraints of such a reaction system in relation to building the ultimate protocell.

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