Designing Dye–Nanochannel Antenna Hybrid Materials for Light Harvesting, Transport and Trapping

Authors

  • Prof. Dr. Gion Calzaferri,

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Bern, Freiestrasse 3, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland), Fax: (+41) 31 631 3994
    • Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Bern, Freiestrasse 3, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland), Fax: (+41) 31 631 3994
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  • Prof. Dr. Rachel Méallet-Renault,

    Corresponding author
    1. PPSM, ENS Cachan, CNRS, UniverSud, 61 av President Wilson, F-94230 Cachan (France), Fax: (+33) 147 402 454
    • PPSM, ENS Cachan, CNRS, UniverSud, 61 av President Wilson, F-94230 Cachan (France), Fax: (+33) 147 402 454
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  • Dr. habil. Dominik Brühwiler,

    Corresponding author
    1. Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Zürich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zürich (Switzerland), Fax: (+41) 44 635 6802
    • Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Zürich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zürich (Switzerland), Fax: (+41) 44 635 6802
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  • Dr. Robert Pansu,

    1. PPSM, ENS Cachan, CNRS, UniverSud, 61 av President Wilson, F-94230 Cachan (France), Fax: (+33) 147 402 454
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  • Dr. Igor Dolamic,

    1. Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Zürich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zürich (Switzerland), Fax: (+41) 44 635 6802
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  • Dr. Thomas Dienel,

    1. Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Zürich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zürich (Switzerland), Fax: (+41) 44 635 6802
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  • Pauline Adler,

    1. PPSM, ENS Cachan, CNRS, UniverSud, 61 av President Wilson, F-94230 Cachan (France), Fax: (+33) 147 402 454
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  • Prof. Dr. Huanrong Li,

    Corresponding author
    1. School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China), Fax: (+86) 222 656 4294
    • School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China), Fax: (+86) 222 656 4294
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  • Dr. Andreas Kunzmann

    1. Optical Additives GmbH, CH-5603 Staufen (Switzerland)
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Abstract

We discuss artificial photonic antenna systems that are built by incorporating chromophores into one-dimensional nanochannel materials and by organizing the latter in specific ways. Zeolite L (ZL) is an excellent host for the supramolecular organization of different kinds of molecules and complexes. The range of possibilities for filling its one-dimensional channels with suitable guests has been shown to be much larger than one might expect. Geometrical constraints imposed by the host structure lead to supramolecular organization of the guests in the channels. The arrangement of dyes inside the ZL channels is what we call the first stage of organization. It allows light harvesting within the volume of a dye-loaded ZL crystal and also the radiationless transport of energy to either the channel ends or center. One-dimensional FRET transport can be realized in these guest–host materials. The second stage of organization is realized by coupling either an external acceptor or donor stopcock fluorophore at the ends of the ZL channels, which can then trap or inject electronic excitation energy. The third stage of organization is obtained by interfacing the material to an external device via a stopcock intermediate. A possibility to achieve higher levels of organization is by controlled assembly of the host into ordered structures and preparation of monodirectional materials. The usually strong light scattering of ZL can be suppressed by refractive-index matching and avoidance of microphase separation in hybrid polymer/dye–ZL materials. The concepts are illustrated and discussed in detail on a bidirectional dye antenna system. Experimental results of two materials with a donor-to-acceptor ratio of 33:1 and 52:1, respectively, and a three-dye system illustrate the validity and challenges of this approach for synthesizing dye–nanochannel hybrid materials for light harvesting, transport, and trapping.

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