Doping for the environment: Electron paramagnetic resonance and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy investigations prove—for the first time—that the proximity of surface F and surface/second layer B generates hole-trapping species responsible for a remarkable photocatalytic activity of rutile TiO2, even for low-surface-area materials. A careful synthetic design of doped TiO2 containing a high concentration of these species may lead to significantly enhanced performances in pollutant degradation.
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