This work presents an overview of high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy (HRSTEM) techniques and exemplifies the novel quantitative characterization possibilities that have emerged from recent advances in these methods. The synergistic combination of atomic resolution imaging and spectroscopy provided by HRSTEM is highlighted as a unique feature that can provide a comprehensive analytical description of material properties at the nanoscale. State-of-the-art high-angle annular dark field and annular bright field examples are depicted as well as the use of X-ray energy-dispersive spectroscopy and electron energy-loss spectroscopy for probing samples properties at the atomic scale. In addition, promising techniques such as cathodoluminescence, confocal HRSTEM, and diffraction mapping are introduced. The presented examples and results indicate that HRSTEM-related techniques are fundamental tools for comprehensive assessment of properties at the atomic scale.