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Spontaneous Ionization of N-Alkylphenothiazine Molecules Adsorbed in Channel-Type Zeolites: Effects of Alkyl Chain Length and Confinement on Electron Transfer

Authors

  • Dr. Sonia Carré,

    1. Laboratoire de Spectrochimie Infrarouge et Raman, UMR-CNRS 8516, Bât. C5 Université de Lille 1, 59655 Villeneuve d'Ascq cedex (France)
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  • Dr. Florence Luchez,

    1. Laboratoire de Spectrochimie Infrarouge et Raman, UMR-CNRS 8516, Bât. C5 Université de Lille 1, 59655 Villeneuve d'Ascq cedex (France)
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  • Prof. Alain Moissette,

    Corresponding author
    1. Laboratoire de Spectrochimie Infrarouge et Raman, UMR-CNRS 8516, Bât. C5 Université de Lille 1, 59655 Villeneuve d'Ascq cedex (France)
    • Laboratoire de Spectrochimie Infrarouge et Raman, UMR-CNRS 8516, Bât. C5 Université de Lille 1, 59655 Villeneuve d'Ascq cedex (France)
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  • Dr. Olivier Poizat,

    1. Laboratoire de Spectrochimie Infrarouge et Raman, UMR-CNRS 8516, Bât. C5 Université de Lille 1, 59655 Villeneuve d'Ascq cedex (France)
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  • Dr. Isabelle Batonneau-Gener

    1. Laboratoire de Catalyse en Chimie Organique, UMR-CNRS 6503, Université de Poitiers, 40 Avenue du Recteur Pineau, 80022 Poitiers (France)
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Abstract

The mere mixing of N-alkylphenothiazines with three channel-type acid zeolites with various structures (ferrierite, H-MFI, and mordenite) induces the spontaneous ionization of the heterocyclic molecule in high yield upon adsorption. The diffuse reflectance UV–visible absorption and Raman scattering spectra show that the accessibility of the highly polarizing acid sites is not indispensable to induce the spontaneous ionization process. Due to their particularly low ionization potential values (6.7 eV), the adsorption of the molecules on the external surface or in the inner volume is the key parameter to generate the radical cation. However, the ionization yield and charge stabilization are intimately correlated to the possibility of the zeolites accommodating molecules inside their channels. Moreover, the higher electrostatic field gradient induced by high confinement is required to favor the second ionization and dication formation. The alkyl chain length plays a decisive role by either slowing down the diffusion process or blocking the molecule at the pore entry. Therefore, the efficiency of the ionization process that depends on the number of adsorbed molecules decreases significantly from phenothiazine to the N-alkylphenothiazines. The spectral data demonstrate that deformation of the alkyl group is necessary to allow the diffusion of the molecules into the channels.

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