We demonstrate the application of in situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to monitor organic, liquid-phase reactions. By covalently attaching ionic head groups to the reacting organic molecules, their volatility can be reduced such that they withstand ultra high vacuum conditions. The applied method, which is new for the investigation of organic reactions, allows for following the fate of all elements present in the reaction mixture—except for hydrogen—in a quantitative and oxidation-state-sensitive manner in one experiment. This concept is demonstrated for the alkylation of a tertiary amine attached to an imidazolium or phosphonium moiety by the anion 4-chlorobutylsulfonate ([ClC4H8SO3]−). In the course of the reaction, the covalently bound chlorine is converted to chloride and the amine to ammonium as reflected by the distinct shifts in the N 1s and Cl 2p binding energies.
If you can't find a tool you're looking for, please click the link at the top of the page to "Go to old article view". Alternatively, view our Knowledge Base articles for additional help. Your feedback is important to us, so please let us know if you have comments or ideas for improvement.