Thermodynamic Aspects of the Synthesis of Thin-Film Materials for Solar Cells



A simple and useful thermodynamic approach to the prediction of reactions taking place during thermal treatment of layers of multinary semiconductor compounds on different substrates has been developed. The method, which uses the extensive information for the possible binary compounds to assess the stability of multinary phases, is illustrated with the examples of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 and Cu2ZnSnSe4 as well as other less-studied ternary and quaternary semiconductors that have the potential for use as absorbers in photovoltaic devices.