Dye-sensitized photoelectrosynthesis cells (DSPECs) represent a promising approach to solar fuels with solar-energy storage in chemical bonds. The targets are water splitting and carbon dioxide reduction by water to CO, other oxygenates, or hydrocarbons. DSPECs are based on dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) but with photoexcitation driving physically separated solar fuel half reactions. A systematic basis for DSPECs is available based on a modular approach with light absorption/excited-state electron injection, and catalyst activation assembled in integrated structures. Progress has been made on catalysts for water oxidation and CO2 reduction, dynamics of electron injection, back electron transfer, and photostability under conditions appropriate for water splitting. With added reductive scavengers, as surrogates for water oxidation, DSPECs have been investigated for hydrogen generation based on transient absorption and photocurrent measurements. Detailed insights are emerging which define kinetic and thermodynamic requirements for the individual processes underlying DSPEC performance.