• charge-carrier injection;
  • electron transfer;
  • femtochemistry;
  • photoelectron spectroscopy;
  • time-resolved spectroscopy


The general case of a heterogeneous electron-transfer reaction is realized by ultrafast electron transfer from a light-absorbing molecule to a wide continuum of electronic acceptor states, realizing the so-called wide band limit. Experimental data obtained for perylene dye/TiO2 systems confirm the predictions of fully quantum mechanical model calculations of the dynamics. The energy distribution of the injected electron shows an energy loss due to excitations of high-energy (quantum) vibrational modes in the ionized perylene moiety. The electron-transfer mechanism is non-adiabatic and the reaction is ultrafast, for example, with a time constant of 9 fs for the COOH anchor-bridge group. The underlying strong coupling of the electronic states to high-energy vibrational modes is a characteristic feature of sensitizer molecules.