Composites of unmodified or oxidized carbon nano-onions (CNOs/ox-CNOs) with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) are prepared with different compositions. By varying the ratio of PEDOT:PSS relative to CNOs, CNO/PEDOT:PSS composites with various PEDOT:PSS loadings are obtained and the corresponding film properties are studied as a function of the polymer. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy characterization is performed for pristine and ox-CNO samples. The composites are characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry studies. The electrochemical properties of the nanocomposites are determined and compared. Doping the composites with carbon nanostructures significantly increases their mechanical and electrochemical stabilities. A comparison of the results shows that CNOs dispersed in the polymer matrices increase the capacitance of the CNO/PEDOT:PSS and ox-CNO/PEDOT:PSS composites.