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Optimization of a Membraneless Glucose/Oxygen Enzymatic Fuel Cell Based on a Bioanode with High Coulombic Efficiency and Current Density

Authors

  • Dr. Minling Shao,

    1. Analytische Chemie—Elektroanalytik & Sensorik, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Universitätsstr. 150, 44780 Bochum (Germany)
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  • Dr. Muhammad Nadeem Zafar,

    1. Department of Analytical Chemistry/Biochemistry and Structural Biology, Lund University, P. O. Box 124, 221 00 Lund (Sweden)
    2. Current address: Department of Chemistry, University of Gujrat, Gujrat (Pakistan)
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  • Magnus Falk,

    1. Department of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Health and Society, Malmö University, 20560 Malmö (Sweden)
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  • Dr. Roland Ludwig,

    1. Food Biotechnology Laboratory, Department of Food Science & Technology, BOKU-University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Muthgasse 18, A-1190 Vienna (Austria)
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  • Christoph Sygmund,

    1. Food Biotechnology Laboratory, Department of Food Science & Technology, BOKU-University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Muthgasse 18, A-1190 Vienna (Austria)
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  • Dr. Clemens K. Peterbauer,

    1. Food Biotechnology Laboratory, Department of Food Science & Technology, BOKU-University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Muthgasse 18, A-1190 Vienna (Austria)
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  • Dr. Dmitrii A. Guschin,

    1. Analytische Chemie—Elektroanalytik & Sensorik, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Universitätsstr. 150, 44780 Bochum (Germany)
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  • Domhnall MacAodha,

    1. School of Chemistry, National University of Ireland Galway, University Road, Galway (Ireland)
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  • Peter Ó Conghaile,

    1. School of Chemistry, National University of Ireland Galway, University Road, Galway (Ireland)
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  • Dr. Dónal Leech,

    1. School of Chemistry, National University of Ireland Galway, University Road, Galway (Ireland)
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  • Dr. Miguel D. Toscano,

    1. Novozymes A/S, Krogshøjvej 36, 2880 Bagsværd (Denmark)
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  • Dr. Sergey Shleev,

    1. Department of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Health and Society, Malmö University, 20560 Malmö (Sweden)
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  • Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Schuhmann,

    Corresponding author
    1. Analytische Chemie—Elektroanalytik & Sensorik, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Universitätsstr. 150, 44780 Bochum (Germany)
    • Wolfgang Schuhmann, Analytische Chemie—Elektroanalytik & Sensorik, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Universitätsstr. 150, 44780 Bochum (Germany)

      Lo Gorton, Department of Analytical Chemistry/Biochemistry and Structural Biology, Lund University, P. O. Box 124, 221 00 Lund (Sweden)

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  • Prof. Dr. Lo Gorton

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Analytical Chemistry/Biochemistry and Structural Biology, Lund University, P. O. Box 124, 221 00 Lund (Sweden)
    • Wolfgang Schuhmann, Analytische Chemie—Elektroanalytik & Sensorik, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Universitätsstr. 150, 44780 Bochum (Germany)

      Lo Gorton, Department of Analytical Chemistry/Biochemistry and Structural Biology, Lund University, P. O. Box 124, 221 00 Lund (Sweden)

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Abstract

After initial testing and optimization of anode biocatalysts, a membraneless glucose/oxygen enzymatic biofuel cell possessing high coulombic efficiency and power output was fabricated and characterized. Two sugar oxidizing enzymes, namely, pyranose dehydrogenase from Agaricus meleagris (AmPDH) and flavodehydrogenase domains of various cellobiose dehydrogenases (DHCDH) were tested during the pre-screening. The enzymes were mixed, “wired” and entrapped in a low-potential Os-complex-modified redox-polymer hydrogel immobilized on graphite. This anode was used in combination with a cathode based on bilirubin oxidase from Myrothecium verrucaria adsorbed on graphite. Optimization showed that the current density for the mixed enzyme electrode could be further improved by using a genetically engineered variant of the non-glycosylated flavodehydrogenase domain of cellobiose dehydrogenase from Corynascus thermophilus expressed in E. coli (ngDHCtCDHC310Y) with a high glucose-turnover rate in combination with an Os-complex-modified redox polymer with a high concentration of Os complexes as well as a low-density graphite electrode. The optimized biofuel cell with the AmPDH/ngDHCtCDHC310Y anode showed not only a similar maximum voltage as with the biofuel cell based only on the ngDHCtCDHC310Y anode (0.55 V) but also a substantially improved maximum power output (20 μW cm−2) at 300 mV cell voltage in air-saturated physiological buffer. Most importantly, the estimated half-life of the mixed biofuel cell can reach up to 12 h, which is apparently longer than that of a biofuel cell in which the bioanode is based on only one single enzyme.

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