Three new anthracene derivatives [2-chloro-9,10-dip-tolylanthracene (DTACl), 9,10-dip-tolylanthracene-2-carbonitrile (DTACN), and 9,10-di(naphthalen-1-yl)anthracene-2-carbonitrile (DNACN)] were synthesized as triplet acceptors for low-power upconversion. Their linear absorption, single-photon-excited fluorescence, and upconversion fluorescence properties were studied. The acceptors exhibit high fluorescence yields in DMF. Selective excitation of the sensitizer PdIIoctaethylporphyrin (PdOEP) in solution containing DTACl, DTACN, or DNA-CN at 532 nm with an ultralow excitation power density of 0.5 W cm−2 results in anti-Stokes blue emission. The maximum upconversion quantum yield (ΦUC=17.4 %) was obtained for the couple PdOEP/DTACl. In addition, the efficiency of the triplet–triplet energy transfer process was quantitatively studied by quenching experiments. Experimental results revealed that a highly effective acceptor for upconversion should combine high fluorescence quantum yields with efficient quenching of the sensitizer triplet.