Spectroscopy and Redox Chemistry of Copper in Mordenite

Authors

  • Pieter Vanelderen,

    1. Center for Surface Chemistry and Catalysis, KULeuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 23, 3000 Leuven (Belgium)
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  • Julie Vancauwenbergh,

    1. Center for Surface Chemistry and Catalysis, KULeuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 23, 3000 Leuven (Belgium)
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  • Dr. Ming-Li Tsai,

    1. Department of Chemistry, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (USA)
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  • Ryan G. Hadt,

    1. Department of Chemistry, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (USA)
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  • Prof. Dr. Edward I. Solomon,

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Chemistry, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (USA)
    • Edward I. Solomon, Department of Chemistry, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (USA)

      Robert A. Schoonheydt, Center for Surface Chemistry and Catalysis, KULeuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 23, 3000 Leuven (Belgium)

      Bert F. Sels, Center for Surface Chemistry and Catalysis, KULeuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 23, 3000 Leuven (Belgium)

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  • Prof. Dr. Robert A. Schoonheydt,

    Corresponding author
    1. Center for Surface Chemistry and Catalysis, KULeuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 23, 3000 Leuven (Belgium)
    • Edward I. Solomon, Department of Chemistry, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (USA)

      Robert A. Schoonheydt, Center for Surface Chemistry and Catalysis, KULeuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 23, 3000 Leuven (Belgium)

      Bert F. Sels, Center for Surface Chemistry and Catalysis, KULeuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 23, 3000 Leuven (Belgium)

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  • Prof. Dr. Bert F. Sels

    Corresponding author
    1. Center for Surface Chemistry and Catalysis, KULeuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 23, 3000 Leuven (Belgium)
    • Edward I. Solomon, Department of Chemistry, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (USA)

      Robert A. Schoonheydt, Center for Surface Chemistry and Catalysis, KULeuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 23, 3000 Leuven (Belgium)

      Bert F. Sels, Center for Surface Chemistry and Catalysis, KULeuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 23, 3000 Leuven (Belgium)

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Abstract

Copper-containing zeolites, such as mordenite (MOR), have recently gained increased attention as a consequence of their catalytic potential. While the preferred copper loadings in these catalytic studies are generally high, the literature lacks appropriate spectroscopic and structural information on such Cu-rich zeolite samples. Higher copper loadings increase the complexity of the copper identity and their location in the zeolite host, but they also provide the opportunity to create novel Cu sites, which are perhaps energetically less favorable, but possibly more reactive and more suitable for catalysis. In order to address the different role of each Cu site in catalysis, we here report a combined electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), UV/Vis-NIR and temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) study on highly copper-loaded MOR. Highly resolved diffuse reflectance (DR) spectra of the CuMOR samples were obtained due to the increased copper loading, allowing the differentiation of two isolated mononuclear Cu2+ sites and the unambiguous correlation with extensively reported features in the EPR spectrum. Ligand field theory is applied together with earlier suggested theoretical calculations to determine their coordination chemistry and location within the zeolite matrix, and the theoretical analysis further allowed us to define factors governing their redox behavior. In addition to monomeric species, an EPR-silent, possibly dimeric, copper site is present in accordance with its charge transfer absorption feature at 22200 cm−1, and quantified with TPR. Its full description and true location in MOR is currently being investigated.

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